Presentation on theme: "ISLAM An Introduction to Islam تقديم إلى إسلام America and the Contemporary World: Middle East Unit 2008-09."— Presentation transcript:
ISLAM An Introduction to Islam تقديم إلى إسلام America and the Contemporary World: Middle East Unit
What does Islam mean? Arabic root word is SLM SLM= Salaam = Peace ISLAM = Willful Surrender Willful Submission MUSLIM = One who submits to Allah
Islam A Faith of Human Unity It calls all humankind regardless of their race and gender to unite in the worship of the One and Unique creator. Islam considers all believers as brothers and sisters, and rejects discrimination on the basis of gender, color, race or ethnic background. Humankind is one family, if one person suffers everyone should help alleviate that suffering
The Five Pillars Of Islam ( Forms Of Worship ) 1)Declaration of Faith (Shahadah) 2)Prayers (Salah) 3)Charity (Zakat) 4)Fasting (Ramadan) 5)Pilgrimage (Hajj)
The Five Pillars of Islam
Declaration of Faith (Shahadah) To say, believe and testify that… La ilaha illa Allah There is no true deity, but Allah (God). لا إله إلا الله
Prayers (Salah) Five Daily Prayers from Dawn to Late Evening regulate a Muslims day: dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset & night Prayers involve ablution, standing, bowing, prostrating, sitting postures Face Kabbah (in Mecca) Mihrab Prayers in Arabic. Additional Prayers optional
Ablution (washing) before Prayer
Charity (Zakat) Required 2.5% charity on yearly savings A Muslim must be a charitable person Removing a stone from the road is charity Greeting with a smile is a charity Redistribution of wealth helps societies & people Muslims are usually motivated to donate even more as optional charity God rewards charity givers very generously in this life and in the hereafter.
Fasting (Ramadan- Siyam) Ramadan is 9th month in Islamic Lunar calendar Daily dawn to sunset fast for 30 days (no food or drink) Eidul-Fitr Holiday at the end This abstention includes food, drink and sexual relations. Muslims believe the fasting person develops a greater understanding of the plight of those who go hungry every day.
Hajj (Pilgrimage) Pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah) once in life time for able Muslims About 2-3 million Muslims perform Hajj each year from all over the world. Eidul-Adha: the biggest Muslim Holiday
Allah Allah is the Arabic name for God used by Muslims of the world as well as Arab Christians. He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begets not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him. (The Quran)
Prophets and Scriptures SOME PROPHETS: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Ishaq, Jacob (Israel), Joseph, Benjamin, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Zakareya, John, Jesus, Muhammad DIVINE BOOKS: Torah, Zabur (Psalms), Injeel (Gospel), Quran Belief in ALL prophets of God Source of All Books is God Main Message of all Prophets: Islam
Muslims Believe Muhammad Is: Last Messenger & Last ProphetThe Last Messenger & Last Prophet The Seal Of The ProphetsThe Seal Of The Prophets The Universal ProphetThe Universal Prophet
Quran القرآن The Holy Book The Recitation Original message is intact, as given by the Prophet in Arabic 23 Years of Revelations ( C.E.) 114 Chapters (Suras) – Each begins with the phrase: In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Islam maintains the integrity of original language (Arabic) Muslims of all language backgrounds recite Islamic verses in Arabic
Guidance from the Quran & Hadith Food Human Equality Justice Repel Evil with Goodness Suicide and Jihad
Sharia – "the path leading to the watering place" – Islamic Law – covers all aspects of life (no separation of church and state) – politics, society, daily life
Sharia law (examples) Theft – punishment can include imprisonment or the amputation of feet or hands so long as there are two witnesses (there are exceptions to amputation if the theft was of nominal value, the person was insane, or they stole out of hunger.) Adultery – punishment for married men and women is being stoned to death, but the act must be witnessed by four male (or 8 female) witnesses, for unmarried men and women is 100 lashes
Sharia law (examples) Converting from Islam to another religion is an apostasy and is punishable by death freedom of speech does not extent to criticizing Muhammad Homosexuality is criminal and in some countries carries the death sentence
1.7 billion Muslims worldwide (almost ¼ of the worlds population) 57 countries with Muslims as a majority of the population, including 22 Arab countries. Country with the largest Muslim population is Indonesia. Only 18-25% of Muslims are Arabs World Muslims
Muslims in America 2 nd most common religion in America One of the fastest growing religions in the USA Estimated 7 to 8 million Muslims Wide variety of ethnic backgrounds/national origins Not all Muslims are Arabs…not all Arabs are Muslims
Food Forbidden: Meat of animals found dead Blood Flesh of swine Alcoholic beverages (such as beer and wine) and intoxicants Meat on which name of God is not invoked at time of slaughtering or meat on which some one elses name is invoked Permitted: food of the People of the Book
No Terrorism ( Forbidden in Islam) Islamic Rulings (Fatwahs) condemned attacks on September 11, 2001, the London bombings and others – Worldwide Islamic leaders signed on to these condemnations – Worldwide Islamic Organizations issued condemnations Muslim anxiety over religious misinterpretations – Feel that Islam and Muslims are being held responsible unfairly for actions of deviated people.
So what was the justification for the 9/11 attack ? Nonbelievers (Christian armies) were defiling holy land -- Mecca The combining of 1) the concept of struggle for justice (Jihad) 2) the idea of the infidel (or unbeliever) who must be overcome and 3) the belief that apostasy (those trying to convert from Islam) are deserving of death.
Linguistic meaning: Striving / Struggling Islamic meaning: Non-violent struggling within oneself for a life of virtue. Fighting to establish justice, which is a supreme goal. Rules of Engagement (Fighting) In Islam ~Commanded by Prophet Muhammad Never Kill Innocent People Never Injure Prisoners-of-War Never Kill Animals Never Destroy Crops or Infrastructures Never Mutilate Bodies of Enemies--dead or alive All Prisoners Should be Given Fair Treatment Women & Children Should be Protected From Harm Always Bury the Dead With Respect Note: 1,400 Years BEFORE Geneva Convention Islamic Jihad
Sects within Islam There are divisions within Islam – just as in Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism Two primary sects: Sunni & Shia – Sunni: ~85-90% – Shia: ~10-15% including parts of Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Yemen, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan Third (Minor) sect: Sufism – Mystical order – May include Sunni and Shi'a followers
Sects within Islam Sunni & Shia Muslims share the most fundamental Islamic beliefs and articles of faith. Nature of the two divisions: 1)Political Succession of the Prophet (Political Leadership) 2)Spiritual Veneration/worship of Imams (Spiritual Leadership)
Sects within Islam Sunni (Sunnah root): one who follows the traditions of the Prophet -- well-trodden path -- tradition 1) Successor to the Prophet should have been the most capable leader, NOT based upon bloodlines. This is what occurred. 2) Spiritual leadership is NOT a birthright, born of community trust and respect Approximately 85-90% of Muslims are from the Sunni branch
Sects within Islam Sunni and Shia also differ in lesser ways: Sunni believe the al-Mahdi (vice-regent of Allah) will arrive at/on Judgment Day Shia believe al-Mahdi is on earth, Hidden and will emerge at/on Judgment Day Subgroups/schools of Sunni: Maliki, Shafii, Hanafi, Hanbali (most conservative) Subgroups/schools of Shia: Ithna Ashariyah (Twelvers--the largest), Isma'iliyah and Zaydiyah
Women in Islam
Islamic Teaching About Women The keys to heaven lay at the feet of the Mother. Your Mother deserves 3 times the respect, honor, devotion & admiration over the Father The Prophet said: He who is best to his wife is best in the sight of Allah (God). The Prophet taught all to be Kind, Gentle & Loving With Women
Pre-Islamic Status Of Women 570 A.D. Very male chauvinistic society No Rights - No Status No Inheritance No say in marriage Considered property of husbands Lost her name Burden on society Her money, property, belonged to the husband Not equal to men Given away by husband Exchanged for goods & services Traded, bought & sold Meanwhile… Other nations doing the same Some Christian Councils still argued whether women had souls
Women = Men Equal… – In the sight of God – In belief, prayer, fasting, charity, pilgrimage – Rewards & punishments – Rights & status Right to… – Inheritance – Initiate Marriage – Initiate Divorce (maybe) – Choose In Marriage – Keep Her Name – Refuse marriage proposals Right to… – Own property – Work – Be educated – Be protected by men – Be respected, loved, admired Can NOT be traded, bought, sold All her money is hers All her property is hers Men required to give dowry in marriage Asset to society Honored in society Integral part of all societal affairs Post-Islamic Status Of Women 623 A.D.
Modern Sharia law (marriage) Marriage – Muslims cannot marry non- muslims – if a spouse is declared a non- muslim then the marriage is annulled (wife receives a marriage gift that is part of a nuptial contract Men are discouraged from beating their wives unless he senses feelings of disobedience and rebelliousness if gentle persuasion does not work then he can strike her, but not with a weapon
Modern Sharia law (Divorce) Divorce – women cannot divorce their husbands without the husbands consent unless she can prove the husband is impotent, men can divorce their wives unilaterally and can do so simply by telling his wife three times that he wants a divorce (a Malaysian court has ruled that this can occur via text message) Men get custody of the children after they are weaned – wife gets spousal support for three months but gets to keep her marriage dowry
Modern Sharia law (Gender) Inheritance – women can own property and inheritance, daughters get half the inheritance of sons Suport – the male relatives of a woman are required to support her, though she can forgive that obligation Witnesses: 1 man = 2 women in terms of reliability of witnesses
Hijab Based upon a passage that women not display their ornaments – interpretation varies In some cases women are expected to cover all parts of their bodies except their hands and face (though sometimes the face as well), men are supposed to covered from their knee to their waist and avoid looking at women in a libidinous way حجاب The Burqa: most extreme--not even a woman's eyes are visible
Muhammed Begins to preach at 43 (613 AD) in Mecca, an epicenter of trade and pilgrimage Flees to Medina in 622 AD but unites warring Arab tribes and gathers an army of up to 10, returns to capture Mecca in 630 This process of uniting the Arabian Peninsula under Muhammed creates a legacy/justification of war against infidels, or unbelievers
Islamic expansion Following Muhammad's death in 632, Islamic armies continued to expand By 661, Islamic armies had gone as far as Modern- day Libya in the West, Iran to the East, and the Black Sea By 750, all of North Africa and Spain are controlled by Islamic armies, with further Northern advances stopped at the battle of Tours in France. To the East Islamic armies capture much of India.
Crusades A series of invasions into the Middle East by Christian armies (often with the goal of capturing Jerusalem and other religious sites) The first crusade was led by the Franks and led to the capture and pillage of Jerusalem in 1099 The last crusade is in 1272, with the last Crusader-established city destroyed in the Middle East destroyed in 1291
Ottoman Empire This Turkish, Islamic empire grew from 1300 to 1683
For 500 to 1000 Years Muslims Were The World Leaders in Mathematics Algebra Arabic Numbers Geometry Engineering Architecture Arts & Crafts Calligraphy Education Universities Learning Knowledge Exploration Hygiene Ethics Etiquettes Social Services Hospitals Medicine Law & Justice Human Rights Civil Rights Commerce Industry Science Chemistry Physics Biology Astronomy Anatomy Botany Poetry
So what happened? Crusades from the West and a Mongol invasion from the North disrupted/destroyed major cities (theory) Influential Islamic scholar Al- Ghazali rejected Greek thought as heretical and argued that the natural world is driven by divine so to understand the natural world look to religious sources first (theory) Western science became permanently linked to the crusades