2Altered States of Consciousness Waking ConsciousnessThoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and alertAltered States of ConsciousnessA mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness, including sleep, dreaming, meditation, or drug-induced states
3Explaining Waking Consciousness Stream of information resulting from the activity of the thalamus--which analyzes and interprets informationConsciousness may only be the “tip of the iceberg” that includes unconscious mental activitiesConsciousness is also viewed as an adaptation allowing us to get along with others in our group (humans)
4Daydreaming and Fantasy Spontaneous shifts if attention away from the here and now into a make-believe worldUrge to daydream peaks about every 90 min.Daydreams may provide stress relief and encourage creativity
5Circadian Cycles: The Biological Clock Circadian cycles are those that last “about a day”Circadian rhythms are governed by an area of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)Controls body temperature, metabolism, blood pressure, hormone levels and hungerJet lag is the result of desynchronization of the circadian rhythm
6The Rhythms of Sleep Brain waves and sleep stages Stage 1 Stage 2 REM sleep
7REM called paradoxical sleep REM Sleep“Rapid Eye Movement”REM called paradoxical sleepBrain waves similar to waking state, but person is deeply asleep and unable to moveMost dreaming takes place during REM
10Sleep Disorders Sleeptalking and Sleepwalking Night terrors Usually occurs during Stage 4 sleepMore common in childrenSleepwalking more common in boysNight terrorsEpisodes of fright that occur during stages 3 or 4 of NREM sleepPerson may sit up or scream, but likely will not recall the episode in the morning
11Sleep Disorders Insomnia Difficulty falling asleep or remaining asleep Affects ~ 35 million AmericansMay be related to stress, depression, medicationCan also be caused by noise, temperature, or trying to sleep in a new environment
12Apnea Sleep Disorders Person stops breathing momentarily during sleep Affects ~ million Americans
13Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy Suddenly falling asleep without warning during waking hoursNarcoleptics often experience loss of muscle tone as wellMay also drop into REM sleep immediately, causing hallucinationsLikely caused by a central nervous system defect
14Dreams as unconscious wishes Why Do We Dream?Dreams as unconscious wishesFreud thought dreams were the “royal road to the unconscious”Manifest contentWhat the dreamer remembers about the dreamLatent contentThe hidden, unconscious meaning of the dream
15Why Do We Dream? Dreams and information processing Information gathered during the day is reprocessed to strengthen memoryDreams and neural activityActivation-synthesis hypothesisRandom outbursts of nerve-cell activity are interpreted as stories by higher brain centersDreams and waking lifeExtension of concerns in daily life
17Sleep & AgingThe older we get, the more likely it is that we will suffer from some kind of sleep disorder.> 50 % of people over 64 years old suffer from some type of sleep disorder.While the hormonal and physical changes that occur as we age will likely affect sleep, especially in menopausal women, the increased presence of other medical conditions and disorders is also a factor that tends to upset the sleep of the elderly.
18Menachem Begin, Former Israeli prime minister (1977-83) SLEEP DEPRIVATIONMenachem Begin, Former Israeli prime minister ( )Mr. Begin described his sleep deprivation experience, while being held captive by the Russian KGB:"In the head of the interrogated prisoner, a haze begins to form. His spirit is wearied to death, his legs are unsteady, and he has one sole desire: to sleep... Anyone who has experienced this desire knows that not even hunger and thirst are comparable with it."
19SLEEP DEPRIVATION: Effects Without adequate rest, the brain's ability to function quickly deteriorates.Concentration levels drop Memory impaired Problem solving greatly impaired Decision-making abilities compromised Brain falls into rigid thought patterns Hallucinations Depression Heart disease Hypertension Irritability Slower reaction times Slurred speech Tremors
20SLEEP DEPRIVATION: Causes Causes of sleep deprivation can be divided into four broad areas:lifestylehealth complicationsmedication side effectsclinical disordersCaffeine &/or alcohol before bedtime is among the most common causes of sleep deprivation.
21SLEEP DEPRIVATION: Causes Weight ChangesDramatic weight changes, especially weight gain, are also common effects of sleep deprivationBecause the amount and quality of the sleep we get affects our hormone levels, namely our levels of leptin and ghrelin
22SLEEP DEPRIVATION: Effects Sleep & AgingThe older we get, the more likely it is that we will suffer from some kind of sleep disorder.Over 50 percent of people over 64 years old suffer from some type of sleep disorder.Hormonal and physical changes that occur as we age will likely affect sleep, especially in menopausal women.
23MENOPAUSEMenopause is the time in a woman's life when the function of the ovaries ceasesThe ovaries are the main source of female hormonesThe average age of menopause onset is 51 years old.Symptoms, including fatigue, memory problems, irritability, and rapid changes in moodHot flashes & night sweats
24SLEEP DEPRIVATION & Sports Performance Some recent studies have found that that sleep deprivation can slow glucose metabolism by as much as 30 to 40%.Eve Van Cauter, Ph.D., from the University of Chicago Medical School, studied the effects of three different durations of sleep in 11 men ages 18 to 27.
25SLEEP DEPRIVATION & Sports Performance For the first three nights of the study, the men slept eight hours per night;For the next six nights, they slept four hours per night;For the last seven nights, they slept 12 hours per night.
26SLEEP DEPRIVATION & Sports Performance Results showed that after four hours of sleep per night (the sleep deprivation period), they metabolized glucose least efficiently.Levels of cortisol (a stress hormone) were also higher during sleep deprivation periods, which has been linked to memory impairment, age-related insulin resistance, and impaired recovery in athletes.
27Meditation and Hypnosis Techniques which improve the ability to focus and relaxSuppresses activity of the sympathetic nervous system
28Meditation and Hypnosis Trancelike state in which people can respond more easily to suggestionHypnosis has been used in conjunction with psychotherapy and as an anesthetic in dentistry and surgery