3Class System in Ancient Egypt PHARAOHEarthly leader; considered a godHIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSESServed gods and goddessesNOBLESFought pharaoh’s warsMERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANSMade furniture, jewelry & fabrics forpharaohs & nobles, & provided for other needsPEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVESWorked in the fields and served the pharaoh
4Advances in Learning Advances in the Arts Developed a form of picture writing called hieroglyphics.Doctors diagnosed and curedillnesses, performed surgery, and developed medicines still usedtoday.Developed 12-month calendar onwhich modern calendar is based.Astronomers mapped constellations and charted movement of theplanets.Developed practical geometry.Skilled in design and engineering.Statues, paintings, and writings tell us about ancient Egyptian values and attitudes.Developed painting style thatremained unchanged for thousands of years.Wrote hymns and prayers to thegods, proverbs, love poems, stories of victory in battle, and folk tales.Built pyramids and other greatbuildings, such as temple ofRamses II.
5Early Dynastic ( )- unification of upper and lower Egypt into a single Kingdom by Pharaoh NarmerOld Kingdom- ( BC)- development of despotic Pharonic dynasties- construction of Pyramids1st Intermediate- ( BC)- Chaos and disunityMiddle Kingdom- ( BC)- reestablishment of Kingdom with Thebes as political center- beginning of powerful cult of Amun2nd Intermediate- ( BC)- Hyksos invasionNew Kingdom- ( BC)- Imperial period (Valley of the Kings)Late Period- ( BC)- decline of Kingdom; conquest by Alexander the Great
6OLD KINGDOM KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM MIDDLEKINGDOMNEW KINGDOMPharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.Large drainage project created arable farmland.Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete.Corruption andrebellions werecommon.Hyksos invaded & occupied the deltaregion.Powerful pharaohs created a large empirethat reached the Euphrates River.Hatshepsutencouraged trade.Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria.Egyptian powerdeclined.
8King Menes <NARMER> C 3100 BC1st dynasty (of 30 dynasties)King of Upper EgyptUnited Upper & Lower EgyptCombined two crownsWhite crown for Upper EgyptRed crown for Lower Egypt+=
9ZOSER <DJOSER> c. 2650 BC 3rd Dynasty of the Old Kingdom Responsible for world's 1stknown monumental stone building: Steppe Pyramid at SaqqaraLittle known about Djoser, butSteppe Pyramid suggests that Egypt politically stable-- successful economyArchitect Imhotep,a priest and advisorfirst architect known by name in history
10Khufu <Cheops> 2551-2528 Created largest pyramid at Giza 4th DynastyFull name, Khnum-Khufwy, means ‘[the god] Khnum protect me.’Believed he was protected by higher powerGave him confidence/foresight to build the Great Pyramid.Khufu’s father, King Sneferu, taught him the art of pyramid building.
11Hatshepsut 1490-1469 Hatshepsut rules Egypt “his majesty herself” Married to Thutmose IIRegent for Thutmose IIIRuled 20 years on her ownTemple at Deir-el BahriEstablished trade routes to Punt to make Egypt rich
12Thutmose III 1490-1436 Destroyed evidence of his stepmother/ aunt Great military leader“Napoleon of Ancient Egypt”54 years of rule,Captured over 350 citiesBuried in Valley of the Kings
13Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten Changed Ancient Egyptian Religion to MonotheismTook name Akhenaten, means “Servant to Aten”Aten, god & disk of the sunMarried to NefertitiFather of TutankhamunConsidered heretic king
14NEFERTITI"And the Heiress, Great in the Palace, Fair of Face, Adorned with the Double Plumes, Mistress of Happiness, Endowed with Favors, at hearing whose voice the King rejoices, the Chief Wife of the King, his beloved, the Lady of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti, May she live for Ever and Always"Nefertiti was active in the religious and cultural changes initiated by her husband~Some maintain she initiated the new religion ~She also had the position as a priest(ess)
15Tutankhamun 1333-1323 Known as the “Boy King” Married one of his half sistersHelped restore Egyptian polytheismTook NineDied ~ 19 due to a head injuryBuried in the Valley of the Kings (KV 62)
16Ramses II Known as Ramses the Great 200 wives 96 sons 60 daughters Known asRamses the Great200 wives96 sons60 daughtersLived for 96 yearsOriginally buried in the Valley of the Kingsbut was moved to avoid looting
17The Last Great Pharaoh - Ramses III At time of Ramses III the world was going through great upheavals.Two principle wives plus many minor wivesTiye, caused his destruction.Plot to kill him with the aim of placing her son, prince Pentaweret, on the throne.She <and others> stirred rebellion used magic wax images and poison as weapons.Conspiracy failed, traitors arrested but not before Ramses was mortally wounded.Fourteen officials sat in judgment and all the accused condemned to commit suicide.Ramses died before the trial was completed.The Last Great Pharaoh - Ramses IIIBC