Presentation on theme: "Leadership in. Class System in Ancient Egypt PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and goddesses NOBLES."— Presentation transcript:
Class System in Ancient Egypt PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and goddesses NOBLES Fought pharaohs wars MERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANS Made furniture, jewelry & fabrics for pharaohs & nobles, & provided for other needs PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh
Advances in Learning Developed a form of picture writing called hieroglyphics. Doctors diagnosed and cured illnesses, performed surgery, and developed medicines still used today. Developed 12-month calendar on which modern calendar is based. Astronomers mapped constellations and charted movement of the planets. Developed practical geometry. Skilled in design and engineering. Advances in the Arts Statues, paintings, and writings tell us about ancient Egyptian values and attitudes. Developed painting style that remained unchanged for thousands of years. Wrote hymns and prayers to the gods, proverbs, love poems, stories of victory in battle, and folk tales. Built pyramids and other great buildings, such as temple of Ramses II.
Early Dynastic ( )- unification of upper and lower Egypt into a single Kingdom by Pharaoh Narmer Old Kingdom- ( BC)- development of despotic Pharonic dynasties- construction of Pyramids 1 st Intermediate- ( BC)- Chaos and disunity Middle Kingdom- ( BC)- reestablishment of Kingdom with Thebes as political center- beginning of powerful cult of Amun 2 nd Intermediate- ( BC)- Hyksos invasion New Kingdom- ( BC)- Imperial period (Valley of the Kings) Late Period- ( BC)- decline of Kingdom; conquest by Alexander the Great
OLD KINGDOM MIDDLE KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom. Large drainage project created arable farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were common. Hyksos invaded & occupied the delta region. Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined.
Pharaohs a sampling
King Menes 1st dynasty (of 30 dynasties) King of Upper Egypt United Upper & Lower Egypt Combined two crowns –White crown for Upper Egypt –Red crown for Lower Egypt C 3100 BC + =
ZOSER 3rd Dynasty of the Old Kingdom Responsible for world's 1st known known monumental stone building: Steppe Pyramid at Saqqara Little known about Djoser, but –Steppe Pyramid suggests that Egypt politically stable-- successful economy Architect Imhotep, –a priest and advisor –first architect known by name in history c BC
Khufu Created largest pyramid at Giza 4th Dynasty Full name, Khnum-Khufwy, means [the god] Khnum protect me. Believed he was protected by higher power Gave him confidence/foresight to build the Great Pyramid. Khufus father, King Sneferu, taught him the art of pyramid building
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut rules Egypt his majesty herself Married to Thutmose II Regent for Thutmose III Ruled 20 years on her own Temple at Deir-el Bahri Established trade routes to Punt to make Egypt rich
Thutmose III Destroyed evidence of his stepmother/ aunt Great military leader Napoleon of Ancient EgyptNapoleon of Ancient Egypt 54 years of rule, Captured over 350 cities Buried in Valley of the Kings
Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten Changed Ancient Egyptian Religion to Monotheism Servant to AtenTook name Akhenaten, means Servant to Aten Aten, god & disk of the sun Married to Nefertiti Father of Tutankhamun Considered heretic king
NEFERTITI "And the Heiress, Great in the Palace, Fair of Face, Adorned with the Double Plumes, Mistress of Happiness, Endowed with Favors, at hearing whose voice the King rejoices, the Chief Wife of the King, his beloved, the Lady of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten- Nefertiti, May she live for Ever and Always" Nefertiti was active in the religious and cultural changes initiated by her husband ~Some maintain she initiated the new religion ~She also had the position as a priest(ess)
Known as the Boy King Married one of his half sisters Helped restore Egyptian polytheism Took Nine Died ~ 19 due to a head injury Buried in the Valley of the Kings (KV 62) Tutankhamun
Ramses II Known as –Ramses the Great 200 wives 96 sons 60 daughters Lived for 96 years Valley of the KingsOriginally buried in the Valley of the Kings –but was moved to avoid looting
The Last Great Pharaoh - Ramses III BC At time of Ramses III the world was going through great upheavals. many minor wives Two principle wives plus many minor wives Tiye Tiye, caused his destruction. Plot to kill him with the aim of placing her son, prince Pentaweret, on the throne. She stirred rebellion used magic wax images and poison as weapons. Conspiracy failed, traitors arrested but not before Ramses was mortally wounded. Fourteen officials sat in judgment and all the accused condemned to commit suicide. Ramses died before the trial was completed.