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Leadership in ANCIENT EGYPT.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership in ANCIENT EGYPT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership in ANCIENT EGYPT


3 Class System in Ancient Egypt
PHARAOH Earthly leader; considered a god HIGH PRIESTS AND PRIESTESSES Served gods and goddesses NOBLES Fought pharaoh’s wars MERCHANTS, SCRIBES, AND ARTISANS Made furniture, jewelry & fabrics for pharaohs & nobles, & provided for other needs PEASANT FARMERS AND SLAVES Worked in the fields and served the pharaoh

4 Advances in Learning Advances in the Arts
Developed a form of picture writing called hieroglyphics. Doctors diagnosed and cured illnesses, performed surgery, and developed medicines still used today. Developed 12-month calendar on which modern calendar is based. Astronomers mapped constellations and charted movement of the planets. Developed practical geometry. Skilled in design and engineering. Statues, paintings, and writings tell us about ancient Egyptian values and attitudes. Developed painting style that remained unchanged for thousands of years. Wrote hymns and prayers to the gods, proverbs, love poems, stories of victory in battle, and folk tales. Built pyramids and other great buildings, such as temple of Ramses II.

5 Early Dynastic ( )- unification of upper and lower Egypt into a single Kingdom by Pharaoh Narmer Old Kingdom- ( BC)- development of despotic Pharonic dynasties- construction of Pyramids 1st Intermediate- ( BC)- Chaos and disunity Middle Kingdom- ( BC)- reestablishment of Kingdom with Thebes as political center- beginning of powerful cult of Amun 2nd Intermediate- ( BC)- Hyksos invasion New Kingdom- ( BC)- Imperial period (Valley of the Kings) Late Period- ( BC)- decline of Kingdom; conquest by Alexander the Great

MIDDLE KINGDOM NEW KINGDOM Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods. Egyptians built pyramids at Giza. Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom. Large drainage project created arable farmland. Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete. Corruption and rebellions were common. Hyksos invaded & occupied the delta region. Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the Euphrates River. Hatshepsut encouraged trade. Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria. Egyptian power declined.

7 Pharaohs a sampling

8 King Menes <NARMER>
C 3100 BC 1st dynasty (of 30 dynasties) King of Upper Egypt United Upper & Lower Egypt Combined two crowns White crown for Upper Egypt Red crown for Lower Egypt + =

9 ZOSER <DJOSER> c. 2650 BC 3rd Dynasty of the Old Kingdom
Responsible for world's 1st known monumental stone building: Steppe Pyramid at Saqqara Little known about Djoser, but Steppe Pyramid suggests that Egypt politically stable-- successful economy Architect Imhotep, a priest and advisor first architect known by name in history

10 Khufu <Cheops> 2551-2528 Created largest pyramid at Giza
4th Dynasty Full name, Khnum-Khufwy, means ‘[the god] Khnum protect me.’ Believed he was protected by higher power Gave him confidence/foresight to build the Great Pyramid. Khufu’s father, King Sneferu, taught him the art of pyramid building.

11 Hatshepsut 1490-1469 Hatshepsut rules Egypt “his majesty herself”
Married to Thutmose II Regent for Thutmose III Ruled 20 years on her own Temple at Deir-el Bahri Established trade routes to Punt to make Egypt rich

12 Thutmose III 1490-1436 Destroyed evidence of his stepmother/ aunt
Great military leader “Napoleon of Ancient Egypt” 54 years of rule, Captured over 350 cities Buried in Valley of the Kings

13 Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten
Changed Ancient Egyptian Religion to Monotheism Took name Akhenaten, means “Servant to Aten” Aten, god & disk of the sun Married to Nefertiti Father of Tutankhamun Considered heretic king

14 NEFERTITI "And the Heiress, Great in the Palace, Fair of Face, Adorned with the Double Plumes, Mistress of Happiness, Endowed with Favors, at hearing whose voice the King rejoices, the Chief Wife of the King, his beloved, the Lady of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti, May she live for Ever and Always" Nefertiti was active in the religious and cultural changes initiated by her husband ~Some maintain she initiated the new religion ~She also had the position as a priest(ess)

15 Tutankhamun 1333-1323 Known as the “Boy King”
Married one of his half sisters Helped restore Egyptian polytheism Took Nine Died ~ 19 due to a head injury Buried in the Valley of the Kings (KV 62)

16 Ramses II Known as Ramses the Great 200 wives 96 sons 60 daughters
Known as Ramses the Great 200 wives 96 sons 60 daughters Lived for 96 years Originally buried in the Valley of the Kings but was moved to avoid looting

17 The Last Great Pharaoh - Ramses III
At time of Ramses III the world was going through great upheavals. Two principle wives plus many minor wives Tiye, caused his destruction. Plot to kill him with the aim of placing her son, prince Pentaweret, on the throne. She <and others> stirred rebellion used magic wax images and poison as weapons. Conspiracy failed, traitors arrested but not before Ramses was mortally wounded. Fourteen officials sat in judgment and all the accused condemned to commit suicide. Ramses died before the trial was completed. The Last Great Pharaoh - Ramses III BC

18 Thank You

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