5Fatal development for the West Constantine had divided the empire in half, each ruled by a co-emperor, with the eastern emperor in Constantinople as the senior partnerThe two halves would gradually drift apart and become, by 395, basically independent political entitiesFatal development for the West65% of all revenue came from the East but 66% of the entire army was stationed in the WestResult was horrible and insoluble financial crisis in the WestTroops went unpaid, supplies could not be purchased, bribes could not be paid to barbarian chiefs, etc.Division of the Empire into two independent halves left the Western half very weak and vulnerable—just as the Germans were renewing their attacks on the frontier again
6FEUDALIZATIONCities declined further and power of large rural landowners increasedIn the West, cities declined rapidly and urban dwellers fled into the countrysideGradually fell under the control of large landownersIn exchange for oaths of loyalty and annual fees and rents, these immigrants were granted small plots of land and military protection of landlordAristocrats and peasants constructing a network of relatively stable and independent cells that survive the collapse of the Western Empire and serve as foundation for the Middle Ages
7CHURCH AND STATEIn the West, church leaders adopted an independent attitude towards the stateWhat remained of towns and cities looked to Church, not the corrupt state. for protection and justice
8SHIFT OF LOYALTYBecause of the leadership of the Church, German barbarians tended to be generally respectful towards church leadersMany Roman citizens had come to view the state as parasiticRobbing and persecuting them and giving absolutely nothing in returnIn their eyes, local church leaders and large landowners were the only people they could trust for protection and justice
9THE GERMANSBegin to migrate out of their homeland in Scandinavia and NE Russia around 500 BC100 BC occupy most of modern-day GermanyPrimarily raised sheep and cattleRaiding
10KINSHIP No formal political organization Tied together by bonds of personal loyaltyKinship and LordshipKinshipBased on clans (large group who were blood relations)Group of clans would join together to form a tribeMaintained cohesion with myth that they all were descended from a legendary hero or godMajor function was mutual protectionIf a person was killed or injured, his kin were expected to get vengeance from the offender or from the offender’s kin group.
11LORDSHIP Relationship between leader and his retinue of warriors Voluntary relationshipHow it workedLeading man would issue a call to all young warriors who wanted to fight with himThose who answered call would swear to serve leader faithfully in return for his protection and share of spoilsMembers of different clans would join these bandsFormed groups of companions, bound to one another and to their leader by oathsTook place outside traditional ties of kinship
12DIFFERENTIATIONBefore they began their migration around 500 BC, Germans had a similar language and cultureBut after the migrations began, different groups became isolated from one another and differences in language and culture developed.By 300 AD, two distinct major groups of Germans had developedWest Germans (Saxons, Franks, and Alemanni who settled along the Roman border of the Rhine River and supported themselves by farming)East Germans (Goths, Vandals, and Lombards who lived in Hungary and southern Russia and supported themselves as nomadic horsemen and herders)
13WEST GERMANS Large, with red or blond hair, worn long, and blue eyes Lived to hunt and fight and, during peaceful times, drank until they passed outNo central governmentMight choose war leader in times of emergency, but– otherwise--unity provided by kinship and lordship
14MUTUAL INFLUENCESince the beginning of the Roman Empire, Romans and German barbarians had influenced each otherGermans began to enlist in the Roman army in the 3rd century ADDid not join individuallyJoined in units known as FoederatiWar bands who fought for Rome under their own chieftainsTrade developed between two groups
15MILITARY SITUATION Germans constantly pressed against Roman borders Sometimes broke through and caused troubleAlways ultimately driven back across the borderSituation sometimes became confusing German Foederati fighting German barbarians
16“MILITARY DEMISE”Manpower shortage caused Rome to relax eligibility requirements in the army so that most soldiers were German mercenaries by 420 ADMany became officers and some even became some commandersCalled PatriciansEmperors became their puppetsBut the problem remainedDisloyal, ill-disciplined, poorly equipped German mercenariesRome did not really have an army anymore
17INVASIONUp until 400, Germans satisfied to launch periodic raids into the empireAround 400, entire tribes and groups of tribes (nations) began to move into the empire simultaneouslyCaptured huge chunks of territory, settled, set up independent kingdoms
18THE HUNS Huns forced huge German migration Nomadic people from Gobi DesertExpert horsemenEntered northern EuropeTerrorized German tribes who lived thereGermans migrated to escape them
19INVASIONSVisigoths cross Danube River 375 and ultimately settle in Spain200,000 Sueves, Vandals, and Alans sweep into Gaul and then Spain in 406Occupy huge chunks of these provincesVandals cross Strait of Gilbraltertake control of North Africa and Sicily
20THE West “END”In the years that followed, Angles and Saxons took BritainFranks took a large portion of GaulOstrogoths invade ItalyIn 476, the patrician Odovacar deposed the last pupper emperor, Romulus Augustulus, sent imperial regalia to Constantinople, and made himself king of ItalyWestern Empire “finished”Romulus Augustulus
27The Huns appear in history in the 3d cent. B.C Nomadic and pastoral people who originated in N central Asia, Gobi DesertAppeared in Europe in the 4th cent. A.D., andBuilt up an empire there.Organized in a predominantly military manner.Divided into hordesUndertook extensive independent campaigns, living off the countries they ravaged.
28Huns described as short and somewhat Mongolian appearance. Military superiority due to small, rapid horses -on which they practically lived, even eating and negotiating treaties on horseback.Invaded lower Volga Valley c.372--advanced westwardPushed Germanic Ostrogoths and VisigothsPrecipitated great waves of migrations that destroyed the Roman Empire……and changed the face of Europe.
29They crossed the Danube, penetrated deep into the Eastern Empire Forced (432) Emperor Theodosius to pay them tributeAttila, their greatest king, had his palace in HungaryMost territories that now constitute European Russia, Poland and Germany were tributary to himPaid as Roman general in chief.
30When Rome refused (450) further tribute, the Huns invaded Italy and Gaul Defeated (451) by Aetius, but ravaged Italy before withdrawing after Attila’s death (453)Later movements are little knownThe word Huns has been used as an epithet, as for German soldiers = destructive militarism.
32King of the Huns (445–53).After 434 he was coruler with his brother, whom he murdered in 445.In 434, Attila obtained tribute and great concessions for the Huns in a treaty with the Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II,But, taking advantage of Roman wars with the Vandals and Persians, he invaded the Balkans in 441.
33Turned back & invaded (452) N Italy but abandoned plan to take Rome itself Withdrawal, credited to the diplomacy of Pope Leo IMotivated by shortage of provisions & outbreak of pestilence.Soon afterward in Hungary, Attila died of a nasal hemorrhage suffered while celebrating his marriageAttila inspired fear and was harsh, but a just ruler to his own peopleEncouraged presence of learned Romans at his courtOften called the Scourge of God
34THE GOTHS Divided into two sub-groups Visigoths (lived along Danube River)Ostrogoths (lived in southern Russia)Developed more advanced form of political organization than other GermansUnited under strong kingsEstablished close contact with Eastern Roman EmpireExposed to Roman/Greek civilizationReason why they were first tribe to convert to Christianity, first to become literate, and first to assume a veneer of civilizationOstrogoth King
36(East Goths), division of the Goths, one of the most important groups of the Germans Ancestors of Goths were the Gotar of S. SwedenBy the 3d cent. A.D., Goths settled in region N of Black SeaSplit into two divisionsNames reflect areas in which they settledOstrogoths settle in UkraineVisigoths (West Goths) moved further west
37Ostrogoths subject to Huns until the death of Attila Ostrogoths chose Theodora-the-Great as king (471)Byzantine emperor, Zeno, commissioned Theodora to reconquer Italy from OdoacerOstrogoths entered Italy (488)Defeated and killed Odoacer (493)Set up Ostrogoth kingdom of Italy Ravenna as capital
38Justinian to send Belisarius to reconquer Italy. Crushed Ostrogoth kingdom, butOstrogoths rebelled under leadership of Totila.552 Byzantine general Narses defeated Totila, who fell in battle.Ostrogoths lost national identity, and the hegemony over Italy passed to Byzantium, andShortly afterward to the Lombards.
40In 401 Alaric began attacks on Italy First halted then successful w) invasionVisigoths became masters of ItalyNegotiations between Alaric and Emperor Honorius failed410 Visigoths sack RomeAlaric dies soon afterward
42Under Ataulf, Visigoths left (412) Italy and went into S Gaul and N Spain Increased territories in Spain (evacuated by Vandals)Extended influenceHeight of Visigothic power reached under Euric (466–84)Completed conquest of SpainIn 507, Alaric II defeated by FranksLost all possessions N of PyreneesToledo became new Visigoth capital, andHistory of the Visigoths became essentially that of Spain