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#1 Referring to c. 1000-750 B.C.E. as the Greek Dark Age is inaccurate. pp.52-56 Agree or Disagree? DEFEND WITH EVIDENCE & LOGIC #2 Describe the Homeric.

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Presentation on theme: "#1 Referring to c. 1000-750 B.C.E. as the Greek Dark Age is inaccurate. pp.52-56 Agree or Disagree? DEFEND WITH EVIDENCE & LOGIC #2 Describe the Homeric."— Presentation transcript:

1 #1 Referring to c B.C.E. as the Greek Dark Age is inaccurate. pp Agree or Disagree? DEFEND WITH EVIDENCE & LOGIC #2 Describe the Homeric Ideal in your own words. pp & DEFEND WITH EVIDENCE & LOGIC #3 Capture the *essence of Homers vision of Justice in the Polis. pg. 57 What do you think? What would you ask him for clarification? Prompts >> Respond to each of the prompts with carefully developed answers >> Must include evidence from the reading to support your decisions. >> Minimum depth is 4-6 complete, detailed sentences each. * essence definition: significance Synonyms: attribute, basis, core, form, nature, structure, substance

2 #1 Philosophy of Life #2 Beauty #3 Polis ACTIVITY Describe the ideals of one (or more) of the themes above in either a/an Essay Two (2) complete pages typed (Times New Roman 12), double-spaced, proofread. Poem/Lyrics Minimum of 12 four-line stanzas, typed (Times New Roman 12), single-spaced, with double-space between stanzas. proofread. DUE: TUESDAY 12/16

3 Western Civilization Greek Philosophy

4 Ancient Greek Philosophy In ancient Greece (c. 5th c. B. C.) physics and astronomy were included as parts of philosophy the love of wisdom. deals with the universe as a whole seeks to view the entire universe seeks to trace everything back to its ultimate grounds.

5 Ancient Greek Philosophy What is the origin of the universe? e.g. the science of geometry deals with the law of space, but it takes space for granted (no geometrician asks what space is), BUT, space is a problem for philosophy. e.g. universe

6 Philosophy and the Universe Philosophy seeks to know why there is a universe at all e.g. the law of causation everything which has a beginning has a cause [Plato: the unmoved mover, the uncaused cause the prime mover] Philosophy deals with the universe as a whole; and it seeks to take nothing for granted.

7 The Earliest Greek Philosophy The Ionic School –Thales, –Anaximander –Anaximenes = men of Ionia, coast of Asia Minor Thales (c B.C.) –founder or father of the Ionic School of philosophy, famous for his mathematical &astronomical learning & for his practical wisdom

8 Thaless Philosophy 1.the principle of all things is water, that all comes from water & to water all returns 2.the earth is a flat disc which floats upon water The significance of Thales is not that this water philosophy has any value in itself, but that this was the first recorded attempt to explain the universe on naturalistic and scientific principles (not by myths & gods).

9 Anaximander Anaximander, c B.C. Anaximander agreed with Thales that the ultimate principle of things is material, but he did not name it water. Anaximander believed that it is any particular kind of matter. it is rather a formless, indefinite & absolutely featureless matter in general –a marked advance philosophically showing the operation of thought & abstraction

10 Anaximenes Anaximenes (c B.C.) Air is constantly in motion & has the power of motion inherent in it, & this motion brought about the universe from Air.

11 Pythagoras Pythagoras, (b. 580B.C.-507B.C.) all things are numerable & can be counted. e.g. in geometry, angles are measured by the number of degrees –number is a very vital aspect of the universe & is fundamental in it.

12 Pythagoras opposites of which the universe is composed LimitedUnlimited OddEven OneMany MasculineFeminine RestMotion

13 Ancient Greek Philosophers: 2nd Period 2nd period: the sophists & –Socrates Plato Aristotle –the maturity of Greek philosophy. Socrates/ Plato: the problem of the mind & the problem of the nature

14 Socrates B.C. born in Athens 469 mind = creative clear critical eager Since the city is good, it must have, Socrates says, the virtues of wisdom, courage, discipline and justice. Socrates divine mission: –was to expose the ignorance of those who thought themselves wise What does Socrates really knows? –Socrates does not claim to know anything.

15 Socrates Socrates set the standard for Western philosophy as we know it today. Since we have no writings by his own hand, we look to his contemporaries (Xenophon, Aristophanes) for information about his life and work. Interest in philosophy began with physical science, but moved into morality and ethics. Served in army during the Peloponnesian War Dabbled in politics after the war Eventually retired to a private life. Devoted time to philosophical dialogue.

16 Socrates method of discussion was a question/answer system in which he claimed ignorance and questioned the aristocratic youths of Athens. Very influential among the young men of the city, but unlike the Sophists, a groups of philosophers who charged a fee for education, Socrates despised material wealth and thus won the loyalty of his students. Socrates

17 Wealthy parents of these young men were not happy with the new ideas their sons were espousing, and, since many of them were involved in politics, they managed to make Socrates a controversial political figure. An Athenian jury brought Socrates up on charges of corruption of youth and interfering with religion in the city. He was convicted. Socrates

18 Socrates on Trial 399 B.C. 3 Athenian citizens: –Meletus –Anytus –Lycon Accused Socrates of 1. heresy (impiety) 2.did not believe/ or observe the gods of the polis 3. corrupted the minds of the youth Vested Interests

19 In 399 B.C., Socrates drank hemlock and died in the company of family and friends. Socrates survives as a character in the dialogues of Plato, bringing enlightenment to the men of Athens by asking leading questions and applying reason. Hemlock: flowering plant native to Europe, Mediterranean, South Africa Socrates

20 Plato described Socrates' death in the Phaedo: "The man … laid his hands on him and after a while examined his feet and legs, then pinched his foot hard and asked if he felt it. He said No; then after that, his thighs; and passing upwards in this way he showed us that he was growing cold and rigid. And then again he touched him and said that when it reached his heart, he would be gone. The chill had now reached the region about the groin, and uncovering his face, which had been covered, he said and these were his last words 'Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius. Pay it and do not neglect it.' 'That,' said Crito, 'shall be done; but see if you have anything else to say.' To this question he made no reply, but after a little while he moved; the attendant uncovered him; his eyes were fixed. And Crito when he saw it, closed his mouth and eyes."

21 Socrates Socrates was first interested in natural science: whether the earth is flat or not, etc. but was not satisfied with the result of his research He abandoned the study of natural science and turned to the study of human life In teaching method, he did not use spoon- feeding method, but dialogue – questions & answers. Socrates liked using examples of daily affairs to enlighten his students educare (Latin) = to lead

22 Socrates did not think he knew a lot. Socrates knew that he was ignorant (but the others did not know that we were ignorant) Socrates

23 Socrates belittled his own knowledge really honest thinkers are seldom impressed by their own ability the companies by whom Socrates was constantly surrounded were not so much as disciples but were as friends who loved him and drew inspiration from him. Socrates

24 Logical Thinking Students like to presume that there must be an absolute answer to all questions. Actually, NO! By systematic question: –What (define) –Where –When –Why –How via dialogues in careful definition & logical thinking –The greatest power on earth is the power of reflection

25 What is an argument? An argument is, to quote the Monty Python sketch, "a connected series of statements to establish a definite proposition." There are three stages to an argument: Premises, Inference, and Conclusion.

26 Stage one: Premises One or more propositions will be are necessary for the argument to continue. They must be stated explicitly. They are called the premises of the argument. They are the evidence (or reasons) for accepting the argument and its conclusions. Premises (or assertions) are often indicated by phrases such as "because", "since", "obviously" and so on. (The phrase "obviously" is often viewed with suspicion, as it can be used to intimidate others into accepting dubious premises. If something doesn't seem obvious to you, don't be afraid to question it. You can always say "Oh, yes, you're right, it is obvious" when you've heard the explanation.)

27 Stage two: Inference The premises of the argument are used to obtain further propositions. This process is known as inference. In inference, we start with one or more propositions which have been accepted. We then derive a new proposition. There are various forms of valid inference. The propositions arrived at by inference may then be used in further inference. Inference is often denoted by phrases such as "implies that" or "therefore."

28 Stage three: Conclusion Finally, we arrive at the conclusion of the argument, another proposition. The conclusion is often stated as the final stage of inference. It is affirmed on the basis the original premises, and the inference from them. Conclusions are often indicated by phrases such as "therefore," "it follows that," "we conclude" and so on.

29 Types of argument There are two traditional types of argument, deductive and inductive. A deductive argument provides conclusive proof of its conclusions; if the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true. A deductive argument is either valid or invalid. A valid argument is defined as one where if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true.

30 Types of argument An inductive argument is one where the premises provide some evidence for the truth of the conclusion. Inductive arguments are not valid or invalid, but we can talk about whether they are better or worse than other arguments. We can also discuss how probable their premises are. There are forms of argument in ordinary language which are neither deductive nor inductive. However, deductive arguments are often viewed as the most rigorous and convincing.

31 Here is an example of a deductive argument: Every event has a cause (premise) The universe has a beginning (premise) All beginnings involve an event (premise) This implies that the beginning of the universe involved an event (inference) Therefore the universe has a cause (inference and conclusion) Note that the conclusion of one argument might be a premise in another argument. A proposition can only be called a premise or a conclusion with respect to a particular argument; the terms do not make sense in isolation.

32 Plato B.C. Born Athens Saw the decline & fall of power (404 B.C. Sparta defeated Athens) One of the best authors among the philosophers. Served in the military from B.C., the end of the Peloponnesian War. Opted for a political career at the end of the war, joined the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants, but their violent acts disillusioned him and he left. In 403 B.C. democracy returned to Athens, but Plato seemed little interested in politics. The death of Socrates in 399 B.C. had a profound effect upon him.

33 Plato left Athens and traveled to Egypt, Sicily, and Italy. Returned 387 B.C. Founded the Academy. Presided institution, which encouraged research and instruction in philosophy and science, until he died. Plato

34 Platos main contributions are in mathematics, philosophy and science. Following footsteps of Socrates, Plato wrote his works as dialogues. Plato

35 PlatoIf you dont know that you are ignorant, you are really ignorant Plato loved & respected Socrates, his teacher & friend. In his later years, Plato is reported to have said, I thank God that I was born Greek and not barbarian, free and not slave, male and not female, but above all that I was born in the age of Socrates. Plato

36 Plato questions & answers are still valid today The Prince of Philosophy Because, 1.Plato asked many of the fundamental philosophical questions that philosophers still ask today 2.Many of Platos answers have been continuously meaningful & are still meaningful for us today modern Western philosophy is only footnotes to Plato Plato

37 The Republic discusses an ideal state and includes the allegory of the cave and the ages of man. The Apology discusses the death of Socrates. the Symposium, takes place at a dinner party, at which each guest (drunken or not) was required to expound upon the nature of love. Plato

38 1.Not his intention to answer specific question or to propose final & dogmatic solutions to any of the problem that were being discussed 2.Plato preferred instead to do something that would stimulate original thinking on the part of the reader. 3.This method of presentation enabled him to present contrasting points of views as they would likely to occur in a series of conversations taking place among individuals having different points of views. 4.Finally, by using conversational method, it would be possible to illustrate the way in which current issues of the day were related to one another. Plato

39 Platos Republic Theory of government The ideal In a later & considerably longer dialogue called The Laws, Plato proposed a less idealistic but more practical alternative for the organization of state government. –Timarchy (Sparta) –Oligarchy –Democracy (Athens) –Tyranny

40 Democracy Plato control by the ignorant majority No order/discipline Political struggle, disorder, wars

41 perfect polis wisdom benevolence bravery to curb desires 1. Rulers (gold) 2. Auxiliaries (silver) 3. Citizen (iron) Platos Republic

42 1.The Ideal Ruler: –Search for ideal, truth & perfection –soul > body –philosopher --- king –Plato believed that only those persons who possessed intellectual as well as moral qualities should be entrusted with the power to ruler over others Platos Republic

43 2.Auxiliaries –Bravery –Obedient to the philosopher – king –Warrior –Little desire Platos Republic

44 3.Citizens (farmers & workers) –A lot of desires –Duty = to obey –to produce accordingly Platos Republic

45 Plato |A| Democracy|S| Timarchy ×Selfish individualism, ×civic irresponsibility diversity ×disintegrating ×No individualism ×Growing dislike of authority ×No respect for authority Respect for law Discipline ×Class war % rich & poor (have & have not) ×Exploitation of the lower class ×Lack of cohesion courage ×Intellectual Limitation

46 ideal state [utopia] perfect polis the world of phenomenon is not the real world BUT pale, imperfect reflections of ideal models. Platos Republic

47 VII: The Allegory of the Cave –Cave --- shadows Philosopher --- sense of duty Objects that we perceive through our senses are merely pale, imperfect reflections of ideal models that exist in a world invisible to us. Reality – not by observing experiments, etc. (Aristotles science) BUT by thinking contemplating Platos Republic

48 Books influenced by The Republic Plato, The Republic St. Augustine, City of God Thomas More, , Utopia Francis Bacon, The New Atlantis James Hilton, The Lost Horizon

49 Literature Criticizing Platos Utopia: Aristophanes, Birds Jonathan Swift, Gullivers Travels Aldous Huxley, Brave New World George Orwell, 1984

50 Aristotle B.C. Aristotle, born in Stagirus, sent to Athens age 17 to Academy of Plato. Attended lectures at Academy for 20 yrs Eventually lectured himself. Supposed to have succeeded Plato as the head of the Academy at his death, but differed in views. Philip of Macedonia invited him to tutor his 13 year-old son Alexander. He remained in Macedonia for 5 years.

51 Aristotle returned to Athens and founded his own school, the Lyceum. Peripatetic (to walk around) described Aristotles habits while lecturing. Lectured & wrote in Athens for the next 13 years, usually to a small groups in the morning, then publicly in the evening. Aristotle

52 After the fall of Macedonian rule in 323 B.C., a charge of impiety was brought up against Aristotle. To avoid execution, he fled to Chalcis in Euboea. He died in 322 B.C. as result of stomach illness. Aristotle

53 Aristotles works generally fall under 3 categories: dialogues, collections of scientific material, and systematic works. A few of note: On the Heavens constructed a system of the universe On the Soul discusses mind and imagination Nicomachean Ethics were written for his son. Aristotle

54 #1 Referring to c B.C.E. as the Greek Dark Age is inaccurate. pp Agree or Disagree? DEFEND WITH EVIDENCE & LOGIC #2 Describe the Homeric Ideal in your own words. pp & DEFEND WITH EVIDENCE & LOGIC #3 Capture the *essence of Homers vision of Justice in the Polis. pg. 57 What do you think? What would you ask him for clarification? Prompts >> Respond to each of the prompts with carefully developed answers >> Must include evidence from the reading to support your decisions. >> Minimum depth is 4-6 complete, detailed sentences each. * essence definition: significance Synonyms: attribute, basis, core, form, nature, structure, substance

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