2The Diaspora and Zionsim Diaspora is the scattering of Jews from roughly 700 BC to 100 AD by Assyrians, Babylonians, and RomansIn 1896 Theodor Herzl publishes “The Jewish State” which calls for Jews to return to Israel (then Turkish- controlled Palestine)Driven by persecution in Western and Eastern Europe, hundreds of thousands of Jews arrive in Palestine
3Post World War ICertain colonies and territories were taken from defeated nations (i.e. Turkey) and placed under the administration of a victorious nation (i.e. Britain).These were called “mandated territories”.League of Nations supervised the governing countries in the administration of the territories.The League expected the governing countries to improve living conditions in the territories, and to prepare the people for self-government.
4Palestine: British Mandate 1946 Palestine placed under administration of Britain, one of the war’s victorious nationsBritain issued “Balfour Declaration” supporting creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine but also promising to protect the rights of those people already there
5UN Partition Plan 1947UN voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Palestinian states.Jerusalem remained neutral.UN, sympathetic towards Jews, gave them 55% of area.
6Israel as a StateUnhappy with this decision, Arab armies of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon invade Israel!While Arab forces were larger than Israel’s, they lacked coordination and organization.Despite small numbers, Jews were well- organized, well-disciplined and well-trained.War officially ended in January Israel gained independence.
7Following Israel’s war for Independence 1949 Armistice: Warring parties agree to stop fighting and talk peace
8Compare UN Plan with War Israel held the 5,600 square miles allotted to it by the UN partition plan plus an additional 2,500 square miles.
91967May: Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian troops began to assemble along Israel’s borders. UN Peacekeepers withdrawn from SinaiMay: Egypt closes Straits of Tiran, cutting off Israel’s supply routes with Asia and much of the Middle East.Israel feels threatened and restricted.
10The Six-day War (June 1967) Israel carried out a preemptive strike. Israel beats combined forces of Syria, Jordan, Egypt, (and some Iraqi, Saudi, Algerian troops)
121973 – Yom Kippur WarSyria, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt launch a surprise attack during the Yom Kippur holidayUS flies roughly 20,000 tons of supplies to help Israel replace lost materials, Soviets supply Egyptians and SyriansIsrael recovers from early attacks and regains most of lost territory in Sinai and gains more area in Golan Heights
13The Middle East Peace Process - 1978 Anwar Sadat (Egypt), President Carter, Menachem Begin (Israel)
15Israeli settlersIsraeli settlers begin establishing settlements within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank with the support of the Israeli governmentTo protect these settlements the Israeli government builds walled compounds and roads accessible only to settlersIllegal settlements have also emerged
17First IntifadaA variety of Palestinian reactions to Israeli occupation ranging from civil disobedience (strikes, boycotts, refusal to pay taxes) to direct action against Israeli military, settler or civilian targets (stone throwing, sabotage, terrorist attacks)Attacks on Palestinians suspected of collaborating with Israelis1,300 Palestinians killed by Israelis, 160 Isrealis killed by Palestinians, roughly 1,000 Palestinians killed by Palestinians
18Yasser Arafat: Palestinians Oslo Accords: 1993Yitzhak Rabin: IsraelYasser Arafat: Palestinians
19Oslo accordsCreates a Palestinian government with the goal of self government,Regular elections to determine leadership of new Palestinian governmentGradual Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian areas, continued Israeli presence in settlements – two-state solution
20Reaction to OsloYitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a right-wing Israeli angered by the Oslo accordsIsraeli objections – endangers settlements, promote terrorist attacksPalestinian objections – continued Israeli settlements and presenceJerusalem question still not settled
21Recent Developments – Oslo Accords 1990s Black = complete Palestinian controlWhite = complete Israeli controlOrange = joint control
23Second IntifadaSparked by Ariel Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount and larger frustration with peace talks that were going nowhereTactics again range from protests and strikes, to attacks on settlers, to suicide bombings and the firing of Qassam rocketsIsraelis respond with rubber-coated bullets, attacks on militant targets and targeting Palestinian Authority structures and personnel
25Israeli construction of wall In 2002, Israel begins construction of a wall system to separate the West Bank from Israel.Opponents say it amounts to an effort to seize land and illegally obstruct Palestinians from reaching their crops, homes, or citiesSupporters say it is needed to protect Israel from terrorist attack
27Emergence of HamasA Palestinian militant group at odds with the more moderate Fatah party, Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by the US and the EU.Hamas also runs a network of schools, hospitals, and other social servicesHamas wins 76 out of 132 seats in Parliamentary elections,. Sparking fighting between Fatah and HamasHamas now controls Gaza, Fatah controls the West Bank
28Israeli withdrawal from Gaza In 2005, Israel withdraws all troops and settlements from the Gaza StripThe pace Qassam rockets and mortar shells hitting Israeli begins to rise to 940 in 2006 (from 179 the year before)In 2007, Hamas takes control from Fatah – Israel and Egypt shut down border crossings into Gaza for all but food, fuel and medicine.Israel is accused of trying to destroy that Gaza economy, Israel maintains it just wants to limit goods that can be turned into weapons
29Rocket attacks and Israeli raids By 2008, the number if Qassam rocket attacks reach 1,500, initially Israel responds by bombing Hamas targetsJanuary 2009, Israel invades Gaza (will withdraw in about three weeksCasualties: Israeli: 13 dead (4 civilian)Palestinian militants and police killed:Palestinian civilians killed:Thousands of buildings destroyed
30Issues on contention Right of return Jerusalem Hamas – recognize IsraelIsraeli blockade of GazaIsraeli wallQassam rocket attacks
31Who is the rightful “owner” of Palestine? Jews claim that the land was theirs 3,000 years ago when Jewish kings ruled the region from JerusalemPalestinians (both Muslim & Christian) claim the land belonged to them since the Jews were driven out in A.D. 135Arabs claim the land belonged to them since their conquest of the area in the 7th Century