Presentation on theme: "The Creation of Israel. The Diaspora and Zionsim Diaspora is the scattering of Jews from roughly 700 BC to 100 AD by Assyrians, Babylonians, and Romans."— Presentation transcript:
The Creation of Israel
The Diaspora and Zionsim Diaspora is the scattering of Jews from roughly 700 BC to 100 AD by Assyrians, Babylonians, and Romans In 1896 Theodor Herzl publishes The Jewish State which calls for Jews to return to Israel (then Turkish- controlled Palestine) Driven by persecution in Western and Eastern Europe, hundreds of thousands of Jews arrive in Palestine
Post World War I Certain colonies and territories were taken from defeated nations (i.e. Turkey) and placed under the administration of a victorious nation (i.e. Britain). These were called mandated territories. League of Nations supervised the governing countries in the administration of the territories. The League expected the governing countries to improve living conditions in the territories, and to prepare the people for self-government.
Palestine: British Mandate 1946 Palestine placed under administration of Britain, one of the wars victorious nations Britain issued Balfour Declaration supporting creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine but also promising to protect the rights of those people already there
UN Partition Plan 1947 UN voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Palestinian states. Jerusalem remained neutral. UN, sympathetic towards Jews, gave them 55% of area.
Israel as a State Unhappy with this decision, Arab armies of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon invade Israel! While Arab forces were larger than Israels, they lacked coordination and organization. Despite small numbers, Jews were well- organized, well-disciplined and well-trained. War officially ended in January Israel gained independence.
Following Israels war for Independence 1949 Armistice: Warring parties agree to stop fighting and talk peace
Compare UN Plan with War Israel held the 5,600 square miles allotted to it by the UN partition plan plus an additional 2,500 square miles.
1967 May: Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian troops began to assemble along Israels borders. UN Peacekeepers withdrawn from Sinai May: Egypt closes Straits of Tiran, cutting off Israels supply routes with Asia and much of the Middle East. Israel feels threatened and restricted.
The Six-day War (June 1967) Israel carried out a preemptive strike. Israel beats combined forces of Syria, Jordan, Egypt, (and some Iraqi, Saudi, Algerian troops)
1973 – Yom Kippur War Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt launch a surprise attack during the Yom Kippur holiday US flies roughly 20,000 tons of supplies to help Israel replace lost materials, Soviets supply Egyptians and Syrians Israel recovers from early attacks and regains most of lost territory in Sinai and gains more area in Golan Heights
The Middle East Peace Process Anwar Sadat (Egypt), President Carter, Menachem Begin (Israel)
Death of Egyptian leader Sadat 1981
Israeli settlers Israeli settlers begin establishing settlements within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank with the support of the Israeli government To protect these settlements the Israeli government builds walled compounds and roads accessible only to settlers Illegal settlements have also emerged
Intifada – Uprising
First Intifada A variety of Palestinian reactions to Israeli occupation ranging from civil disobedience (strikes, boycotts, refusal to pay taxes) to direct action against Israeli military, settler or civilian targets (stone throwing, sabotage, terrorist attacks) Attacks on Palestinians suspected of collaborating with Israelis 1,300 Palestinians killed by Israelis, 160 Isrealis killed by Palestinians, roughly 1,000 Palestinians killed by Palestinians
Oslo Accords: 1993 Yitzhak Rabin: Israel Yasser Arafat: Palestinians
Oslo accords Creates a Palestinian government with the goal of self government, Regular elections to determine leadership of new Palestinian government Gradual Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian areas, continued Israeli presence in settlements – two-state solution
Reaction to Oslo Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a right-wing Israeli angered by the Oslo accords Israeli objections – endangers settlements, promote terrorist attacks Palestinian objections – continued Israeli settlements and presence Jerusalem question still not settled
Recent Developments – Oslo Accords 1990s Black = complete Palestinian control White = complete Israeli control Orange = joint control
Renewed fighting (Intifada)
Second Intifada Sparked by Ariel Sharons visit to the Temple Mount and larger frustration with peace talks that were going nowhere Tactics again range from protests and strikes, to attacks on settlers, to suicide bombings and the firing of Qassam rockets Israelis respond with rubber-coated bullets, attacks on militant targets and targeting Palestinian Authority structures and personnel
Palestinians property burning
Israeli construction of wall In 2002, Israel begins construction of a wall system to separate the West Bank from Israel. Opponents say it amounts to an effort to seize land and illegally obstruct Palestinians from reaching their crops, homes, or cities Supporters say it is needed to protect Israel from terrorist attack
Walls and Barriers
Emergence of Hamas A Palestinian militant group at odds with the more moderate Fatah party, Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by the US and the EU. Hamas also runs a network of schools, hospitals, and other social services Hamas wins 76 out of 132 seats in Parliamentary elections,. Sparking fighting between Fatah and Hamas Hamas now controls Gaza, Fatah controls the West Bank
Israeli withdrawal from Gaza In 2005, Israel withdraws all troops and settlements from the Gaza Strip The pace Qassam rockets and mortar shells hitting Israeli begins to rise to 940 in 2006 (from 179 the year before) In 2007, Hamas takes control from Fatah – Israel and Egypt shut down border crossings into Gaza for all but food, fuel and medicine. Israel is accused of trying to destroy that Gaza economy, Israel maintains it just wants to limit goods that can be turned into weapons
Rocket attacks and Israeli raids By 2008, the number if Qassam rocket attacks reach 1,500, initially Israel responds by bombing Hamas targets January 2009, Israel invades Gaza (will withdraw in about three weeks Casualties: Israeli: 13 dead (4 civilian) Palestinian militants and police killed: Palestinian civilians killed: Thousands of buildings destroyed
Issues on contention Right of return Jerusalem Hamas – recognize Israel Israeli blockade of Gaza Israeli wall Qassam rocket attacks
Who is the rightful owner of Palestine? Jews claim that the land was theirs 3,000 years ago when Jewish kings ruled the region from Jerusalem Palestinians (both Muslim & Christian) claim the land belonged to them since the Jews were driven out in A.D. 135 Arabs claim the land belonged to them since their conquest of the area in the 7 th Century