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Characterized by: confused & disordered thoughts & perceptions Most debilitating of the mental disorders Deterioration of adaptive behavior Schizophrenia.

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Presentation on theme: "Characterized by: confused & disordered thoughts & perceptions Most debilitating of the mental disorders Deterioration of adaptive behavior Schizophrenia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Characterized by: confused & disordered thoughts & perceptions Most debilitating of the mental disorders Deterioration of adaptive behavior Schizophrenia

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3 Schizophrenia…symptoms B B izarre behaviors (catatonia, others) A A ffect (inappropriate, flat) D D elusions S S peech (disorganized, incoherent) H H allucinations I I nability to care for self or function N N egative symptoms

4 Positive vs. Negative Sx POSITIVE SYMPTOMS – Presence of something abnormal – Examples: DELUSIONS, HALLUCINATIONS, DISORGANIZED SPEECH, ODD BODY MVMTS, CATATONIA NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS – Absence of something normal – Examples: AVOLITION, ALOGIA, ANHEDONIA, FLAT AFFECT

5 POSITIVE SYMPTOMS DELUSIONS HALLUCINATIONS DISORGANIZED SPEECH ODD BODY MOVEMENTS CATATONIA

6 POSITIVE SYMPTOMS DELUSIONS – False beliefs maintained in the face of contrary evidence – Types GrandeurIdentity PersecutionReference Control HALLUCINATIONS – Sensations in the absence of external stimuli – Types: visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory

7 Of these positive symptoms delusions, in particular, can be broken down into smaller subsets: Persecutory delusions – False beliefs that ones self or ones loved ones are being persecuted, watched, or conspired against by others. Delusions of being controlled – Belief that ones thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are being imposed or controlled by some external force Thought broadcasting – Belief that ones thoughts are being broadcast from ones mind for others to hear Thought insertion – Belief that another person or object is inserting thoughts into ones head

8 Of these positive symptoms delusions, in particular, can be broken down into smaller subsets: Thought withdrawal – Belief that thoughts are being removed from ones head by another person or object Delusions of guilt or sin – False belief that one has committed a terrible act or is responsible for come terrible event Somatic delusions – False belief that ones appearance or part of ones body is diseased or altered Grandiose delusions – False belief that one has great power, knowledge, or talent or that one is a famous and powerful person

9 Colleen D. Gjefle

10 NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS – AVOLITION: No Initiative – ALOGIA: Speech is Vacant – ANHEDONIA: No Pleasure – FLAT AFFECT: The Mask – ASOCIALITY: No Social Interest

11 SUBTYPES 3. Catatonic 4. Undifferentiated 5. Residual 1.Paranoid 2.Disorganized

12 Paranoid Delusions & Hallucinations Intact Cognition and Affect No Disorganized Speech Best Prognosis

13 Disorganized Disorganized Speech Disorganized Behavior Flat or Inappropriate Affect Delusions & Hallucinations ~Fragmented or lacking a theme Often Chronic

14 Catatonic Disorganized Speech Disorganized Behavior Waxy Flexibility, Rigidity, Odd Mannerisms, Mimicry Flat or Inappropriate Affect Delusions & Hallucinations Fragmented or lacking a theme Often Chronic

15 Undifferentiated Beginnings of Breakdown Major symptoms of Schizophrenia Do NOT meet other criteria Waste Basket philosophy

16 Residual Have had one episode Now mostly symptom-free >Q: Once a schizophrenic always a schizophrenic?

17 CAUSES

18 Causes of Schizophrenia Genetic Predisposition – Twin study evidence Neurotransmitters – Dopamine hypothesis Brain Structure & Function Family & Interactions – Double-bind theory – Schizophrenogenic mother

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26 TREATMENT/THERAPIES

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30 MAPPING THE BRAIN

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33 Map reveals the 3-dimensional profile of gray matter loss in the brains of teenagers with early-onset schizophrenia ~with a region of greatest loss in the temporal and frontal brain regions that control memory, hearing, motor functions, and attention.

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36 MORE CHARTS

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38 Approximate number of people in the United States suffering from: Schizophrenia: Over 2.2 million Multiple Sclerosis: 400,000 Insulin-dependent Diabetes: 350,000 Muscular Dystrophy: 35,000

39 FACTS & FIGURES

40 After 10 years, of the people diagnosed with schizophrenia: 25% Completely Recover 25% Much Improved, relatively independent 25% Improved, but require extensive support 15% Hospitalized, unimproved 10% Dead (Mostly Suicide) After 30 years, of the people diagnosed with schizophrenia: 25% Completely Recover 35% Much Improved, relatively independent 15% Improved, but require extensive support 10% Hospitalized, unimproved 15% Dead (Mostly Suicide)

41 Where are the People with Schizophrenia? …Approximately: 6% are homeless or live in shelters 6% live in jails or prisons 5-6% live in Hospitals 10% live in Nursing homes 25% live with a family member 28% are living independently 20% live in Supervised Housing (e.g. group homes, etc.) Approximately 200,000 individuals with schizophrenia or manic-depressive illness are homeless, constituting 1/3 of the approximately 600,000 homeless population (total homeless population statistic based on data from Department of Health and Human Services).

42 The 45 percent who acknowledged that they needed treatment ~(and thus had awareness of their illness) ~but still were not receiving treatment cited many reasons for this. These included (respondent could check several reasons): 32% "wanted to solve problem on own" 27% "thought the problem would get better by itself" 20% "too expensive" 18% "unsure about where to go for help" 17% "help probably would not do any good" 16% "health insurance would not cover treatment

43 DISEASE FY 1999 NIH research expenditures Prevalence: Individuals with this disease NIH research dollars per person affected HIV (including AIDS) $1,792,700,000800,000$2, Lung cancer $163,100,000342,457$ Cervical cancer $75,200,000231,064$ Multiple sclerosis $96,300,000350,000$ Breast cancer $474,700,0002,197,504$ Colorectal cancer $175,900,0001,041,499$ Parkinsons disease $132,300,0001,000,000$ Prostate cancer $177,500,0001,637,208$ Alzheimers disease $406,500,0004,000,000$ Schizophrenia$196,515,0002,632,396$74.65 Bipolar disorder $57,805,0002,227,412$25.95 Depression $199,600,00010,732,076$18.60 Panic disorder $19,049,0003,239,872$5.88 Obsessive-Compulsive disorder $12,693,0004,859,808$2.61


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