6 Periods.... The rows of boxes are called periods. Groups... The boxes arranged in order of increasing atomic number into a series of columns (GROUPS) or familiesPeriods....The rows of boxes are called periods.
7 Orbitals-describe electrons probable location (orbitals s,p,d,f). Valence electrons- electrons in outermost orbitals/ determine chemical properties of element Orbitals-describe electrons probable location (orbitals s,p,d,f).
9 Atomic Radius- half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms that are chemically bonded together.trends within periods--decrease in atomic radii as you move left to right.trends within groups--atomic radii decrease as you move down a group.
10 Ionic Radius-is a measure of the size of an ion in a crystal lattice trends within periods-- the size of the positive ions gradually decrease from left to right.trends within groups--gradual increase in ionic size, going down.
11 Ionization Energy- energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom. trends within periods-- first ionization energies generally increase as you move left to right.trends within groups--first ionization energies generally decrease as you move down.
12 trends within groups-- decreases as you move down Electronegativity- indicates relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond.trends within groups-- decreases as you move downtrends within periods-- icreases as you move left to right.
14 S- Block Elements The s-block metals vary from extremely soft (all the alkali metals) to quite hard (beryllium). With the exception of beryllium and magnesium, the metals are too reactive for any structural use except as very minor components of alloys with lead.
15 The S-BlockHydrogen is the first element on the periodic table. This is why its atomic number is one. The symbol is H. The atomic weight is It is a gas element, therefore, it is colorless. It is in the first period as well. It is in the s-block, and is non-metallic.
16 The uses for Hydrogen. It can be used as a lifting agent. It can be used as a fuel.The most common use for hydrogen is in chemical reactions and reactions.
17 Alkali Metals...Lithium (Li)- number 3 on periodic table. Compounds are used in dehumidifiers. Lithium carbonate is used to strenthen glass and as a drug to treat bipolar disorders.Sodium (Na)- number 11 on table. used in sodium vapor lamps and as a heat exchanger in nuclear reactors.Potassium (K)- number 19 on table. potassium chloride serves as salt substitute. potassium compounds are included in fertilizers. potassium nitrate used as an explosive for large scale fireworks displays.
18 Alkali Metals... (continued)... Rubidium (Rb)- number 37. it has been considered for use in an "ion engine"Cesium (Cs)- number 55. used in atomic clocks, removes air traces in vacuum tubes, Ion propulsion systems, Medical, Photoelectric cells, Cesium vapor, Magnetometer. Francium (Fr)- number 87. It has been used for research purposes in the fields of biology and of atomic structure. Its use as a potential diagnostic aid for various cancer has also been explored, but this application has been deemed impractical.
19 Alkaline Earth Metals...Beryllium (Be)- number 4. used to moderate neutrons in nuclear reactors.Calcium (Ca)- number 20. maintains bones and teeth. calcium carbonate used in antacid tablets and as abrasive in toothpaste.Magnesium (Mg)- number 12. used for backpack frames, bicycle frames, and the "mag" wheels on sports cars.
20 Alkaline Earth Metals..(continued) Strontium (Sr)- number 38. Gives some fireworks their crimson color.Barium (Ba)- number 56. used in paints and some types of glass.Radium (Ra) - number 88. Highly radioactive.
21 P- Block Elements...characteristics = In the elemental form of the p-block elements, the highest energy electron occupies a p-orbital. The p-block contains all of the nonmetals (except for Hydrogen and Helium which are in the s-block) and semimetals, as well as some of the metals.
22 The Boron Group...Boron (B)- number 5. used as a cleaning agent and as fireproof insulation.Indium (In)- number 49. used to coat the bearings of high speed motors, also to make other electrical components.Aluminium (Al)- number 13. used as an abrasive.Thallium (Tl)- # 81.Thallium sulfate, an odorless, tasteless thallium compound, was once used as a rat and ant poison.Gallium (Ga)- number 31. used in some thermometers.
23 Carbon (C)- number 6. obtained from coal deposits. The Carbon Group...Tin (Sn)- aluminum cans.Carbon (C)- number 6. obtained from coal deposits.Lead (Pb)- number 82. used in storage batteries for automobiles.Silicon (Si)- number 14. used in computer chips and solar cells.Germanium (Ge)- # 32.used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications.
24 The Nitrogen Group...Antimony (Sb)- number 51. antimony sulfide used as a cosmetic to darken eyebrows.Nitrogen (N)- number 7.The largest use of nitrogen is for the production of ammonia.Phosphorus (P)- number 15. used to make phosphoric acid. essential for plant growth.Bismuth (Bi)- number 83. used in pink remedy for nausea and diarrhea.Arsenic (As)- number 33.used to make rat poison and some insecticides
25 The Oxygen Group...Oxygen (O)- number 8. used for welding. Liquid oxygen, when combined with liquid hydrogen, makes an excellent rocket fuelTellurium (Te)- # 52. used to color glass and ceramics and is one of the primary ingredients in blasting caps.Sulfur (S)- # 16. used to preserve fruit and as an antibacterial agent. Polonium (Po)- # 84. used to eliminate static electricity in machinery.also used in brushes for removing dust from photographic filmsSelenium (Se)- number 34. used in solar panels.
26 Fluorine (F)- # 9. used in toothpaste and water to protect tooth enamel. Halogens.. Iodine (I)- # 53. your body needs it. Campers use it to disinfect water.Astatine (At)- # 85. there are currently no uses for astatine outside of basic scientific research.Chlorine (Cl)- # 17. removes stains from clothing.Bromine (Br)- # 35. Silver bromide, a chemical used in photography, now accounts for the largest use of bromine.
27 The Noble GasesThere are six noble gases. Helium, Argon Neon, Krypton. Xenon, and Radon are the six noble gases.
28 HeliumHelium is lighter than air. Its symbol is He and it is the second element.Helium was found on the sun before it ws found on the Earht. Helium is found in natural gas deposits. Its common uses are low-temperature cooling systems and pressure, lighter-than-air objects and purge systems
29 NeonNeon is a noble gas. It is the tenth element and its symbol is Ne. It can be found in volcanic eruptions. It is commonly used for lights.
30 ArgonArgon is the eighteenth element in the periodic table, as well as a noble gas. It is commonly used in dating rocks with a process called Potassium-Argon dating.
31 XenonXenon is the 54th element on the periodic table. Its symbol is Xe. It is commonly used to replace the halogen in headlights. It makes them brighter.
32 KryptonKrypton is the 36th element in the periodic table. Its symbol is Kr. Its common uses are for photographic flash lamps for high speed photography
33 RadonRadon is the 86th element on the periodic table. At normal room temperatures, radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas. Small amounts of radon are sometimes used by hospitals to treat some forms of cancer
34 Little is known about the elements (Ununtrium, Ununquadium, Ununpentium, Ununhexium, and Ununoctium). They currently have no uses outside of basic scientific research.
35 D-Block Elements. The Transition Metals These elements share properties such as electrical conductivity, luster, and malleability with other metals.
36 Scandium (Sc)- # 21. Alloys of scandium and aluminum are used in some kinds of athletic equipment Titanium (Ti)- # 22. Since titanium does not react within the human body, it is used to create artificial hips, pins for setting bones and for other biological implants.Vanadium (V)- # 23.Vanadium is corrosion resistant and is sometimes used to make special tubes and pipes for the chemical industry.Chromium (Cr)- # 24. Chromium is added to steel to harden it and to form stainless steel.
37 Iron (Fe)- # 26. used in making steel. Manganese (Mn)- # 25.Manganese is added to molten steel to remove oxygen and sulfur and is alloyed with steel to make it easier to form and work with and to increase steel's strength and resistance to impact. Iron (Fe)- # 26. used in making steel.Cobalt (Co)- # 27. Although cobalt is used in electroplating to give objects an attractive surface that resists oxidation, it is more widely used to form alloys.Nickel (Ni)- # 28. Nickel is a hard, corrosion resistant metal. Nickel is alloyed with steel to make armor plate, vaults and machine parts.
38 Copper (Cu)- # 29. used in electrical wiring. Zinc (Zn)- # 30.used as a protective coating for other metals.Yttrium (Y)- # 39. Yttrium oxide and yttrium orthovanadate are both combined with europium to produce the red phosphor used in color televisionsZirconium (Zr)- # 40. Zirconium is a corrosion resistant metal that is used in high performance pumps and valves. Zirconium is widely used in nuclear reactors
39 Niobium (Nb)- # 41. Niobium is used as an alloying agent and for jewelry, but perhaps its most interesting applications are in the field of superconductivity.Molybdenum (Mo)- # 42. Molybdenum is primarily used as an alloying agent in steel.Technetium (Tc)- # 43. Small amounts of technetium can retard the corrosion of steel. can also be used as a medical tracer and to calibrate particle detectors.Ruthenium (Rh) # 44. Ruthenium is primarily used as an alloying agent.
40 Rhodium (Rh)- # 45. Rhodium is used to make electrical contacts, as jewelry and in catalytic converters, but is most frequently used as an alloying agent in other materials.Palladium (Pd)- # 46. Palladium is used to make springs for watches, surgical instruments, electrical contacts and dental fillings and crowns.Silver (Ag)- # 47.Pure silver is the best conductor of heat and electricity of all known metals, so it is sometimes used in making solder, electrical contacts and printed circuit boards.Cadmium (Cd)- Cadmium easily absorbs neutrons and is used to make control rods for nuclear reactors. Cadmium is also used in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries.
41 Tantalum (Ta)- # 73. used to make surgical equipment. Lutetium (Lu)- # 71. some of its radioactive isotopes can be used as a catalyst in the cracking of petroleum products and a catalyst in some hydrogenation and polymerization processes.Hafnium (Hf)- # 72.used in the control rods of nuclear reactors. Hafnium is also used in vacuum tubes as a getter, a material that combines with and removes trace gases from vacuum tubesTantalum (Ta)- # 73. used to make surgical equipment.Tungsten (W)- # 74. used to make metal to glass seals.
42 Rhenium (Re)- # 75. used in flash lamps for photography and for filaments in mass spectrographs and ion gagesOsmium (Os)- # 76. primarily used to make very hard alloys. Osmium alloys can be found in ball point pen tips, fountain pen tips, record player needles, electrical contacts and other devices where frictional wear must be minimized.Iridium (Ir)- # 77. primarily used as a hardening agent for platinum. Iridium is also alloyed with osmium to make the tips of fountain pens and compass bearings.Platinum (Pt)- # 78. used to make jewelry, wire, electrical contacts and laboratory vessels
43 Gold (Au)- # 79. Thin sheets of gold, known as gold leaf, are primarily used in arts and crafts for gilding.Gold alloys are used to make jewelry, decorative items, dental fillings and coins.Mercury (Hg)- # 80. used to make thermometers, barometers and other scientific instrumentsRutherfordium (Rf)- # 104.there are currently no uses for rutherfordium outside of basic scientific research.Dubnium (Db)- # 105. there are currently no uses for dubnium outside of basic scientific research.
44 Seaborgium (Sg)- # 106. there are currently no uses for seaborgium outside of basic scientific research.Bohrium (Bh)- # 107. there are currently no uses for bohrium outside of basic scientific research.Hassium (Hs)- # 108. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.Meitnerium (Mt)- #109. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.
45 Darmstadtium (Ds)- # 110. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research. Roentgenium (Rg)- # 111. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.Copernicium (Cn)- # 112. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.
46 F-Block Elements (The Inner Transition Metals) They are characterized by having two s-electrons in their outer shell (n) and f-electrons in their inner (n–1) shell.
47 The Lanthanide Elements LanthenumCeriumPraseodyminumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosium HolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbium
48 LanthenumLanthenum is the first of the lanthanide series. It Lanthanum is one of the rare earth elements used to make carbon arc lights which are used in the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projector lights. Lanthanum also makes up about 25% of Misch metal, a material that is used to make flints for lighters. Lanthana is used to make the glass used in camera lenses and in other special glasses.
49 CeriumCerium is the second element in the Lanthanide group. It is found in allanite, monazite, bastanite, cerite, and samarskite. It is used on pyrophoric alloys in cigarette lighters.
50 PraseodyminumPraseodyminum is the 59th element on the periodic table. It is the third lanthanide element. Praseodyminum is widely used as a core materal for carbon arcs used by the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projection. Some of the salts are even used to color glasses.
51 NeodymiumDidymium, of which neodymium is a component, is used for coloring glass to make welders' goggles. Neodymium salts are also used for colorant for enamels.
52 PromethiumPromethium could be used to make a nuclear powered battery. This type of battery would use the beta particles emitted by the decay of promethium to make a phosphor give off light. This light would then be converted into electricity by a device similar to a solar cell. It is expected that this type of battery could provide power for five years.
53 SamariumSamarium oxide has been used in optical glass ro absorb the infrared. samarium is also used in carbon-arc lighting in the motion picture industry.
54 EuropiumEuropium is the most reactive of the rare earth elements. There are no commercial applications for europium metal, although it has been used to dope some types of plastics to make lasers. Since it is a good absorber of neutrons, europium is being studied for use in nuclear reactors.Europium oxide, one of europium's compounds, is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors.
55 GadoliniumGadolinium has the greatest ability to capture thermal neutrons of all known elements and can be used as control rods for nuclear reactors.Gadolinium can be combined with yttrium to form garnets that have applications in microwave technology.
56 TerbiumTerbium is used to dope some types of solid-state devices and, along with zirconium dioxide as a crystal stabilizer in fuel cells that operate at high temperatures.Sodium terbium borate, a terbium compound, is used to make laser light.
57 DysprosiumThere are no commercial applications for dysprosium. Since it easily absorbs neutrons and has a high melting point, dysprosium might be alloyed with steel for use in nuclear reactors. When combined with vanadium and other rare earth elements, dysprosium is used as a laser material.
58 HolmiumHolmium has no commercial applications, although it has unusual magnetic properties that could be exploited in the future.Holmium forms no commercially important compounds. Some of holmium's compounds include: holmium oxide holmium fluoride and holmium iodide.
59 ErbiumErbium is alloyed with vanadium to make it softer and easier to shape. Erbium is added to fiber optic cables as a doping agent where it is used as a signal amplifier. Erbium also has some uses in the nuclear power industry.
60 ThuliumThulium is the least abundant of the naturally occurring rare earth elements. Metallic thulium is relatively expensive and has only recently become available. It currently has no commercial applications, although one of its isotopes, thulium-169, could be used as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines.
61 YtterbiumYtterbium has few uses. It can be alloyed with stainless steel to improve some of its mechanical properties and used as a doping agent in fiber optic cable where it can be used as an amplifier. One of ytterbium's isotopes is being considered as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines.
62 The Actinide Elements...Actinium (Ac)- # 89. has no significant commercial applications, although it is used in the production of neutrons.Thorium (Th)- # 90. used to coat tungsten filaments used in electronic devices, such at television sets.Protactinium (Pa)- # 91.there are currently no uses for protactinium outside of basic scientific research.Uranium (U)- # 92. most commonly used in the nuclear power industry to generate electricity.
63 Neptunium (Np)- # 93. Neptunium-237 is used in neutron detectors Plutonium (Pu)- # 94. used as fuel in nuclear power plants.Americium (Am)- # 95. used in home smoke detectors.Curium (Cm)- # 96. primarily used for basic scientific research.
64 Berkelium (Bk)- # 97. no known uses for berkelium and its compounds outside of basic scientific research.Californium (Cf)- # 98. used in devices known as neutron moisture gauges that are used to find water and oil bearing layers in oil wells.Einsteinium (Es)- # 99. currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.Fermium (Fm)- # 100.currently no uses for fermium outside of basic scientific research.
65 Mendelevium (Md)- # 101. has no uses outside of basic scientific research Nobelium (No)- # 102. no uses for it outside of basic scientific research.Lawrencium (Lr)- # 103. currently no uses for it outside of basic scientific research.