Presentation on theme: "Periodic Table of Elements"— Presentation transcript:
1Periodic Table of Elements MEET THE ELEMENTSPagesCh.4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 and 5.1
2Dmitri MendeleevHe recognized patterns in the element’s approximate atomic masses and their ability to bond with other elements.
3Periodic TableBased on atomic masses and their ability to bond with other elements, Mendeleev constructed the first periodic Table.
4The AtomNucleus: The core of the atom that contains two different subatomic particles.
5The Atom cont… Protons: Have a positive charge. The number of protons equals the number of electrons.
6Neutrons: Have no Charge. The Atom cont…Neutrons: Have no Charge.
7Electrons Negative charge. The Atom cont…Electrons Negative charge..
8Atomic Numbers, Symbols and Mass Atomic number is the smaller number and the number of protons in the nucleus.Element Symbol47AgSilverElement NameAtomic mass is the average mass of all the known isotopes.
9How to calculate # of neutrons Mass number - Atomic number = # of neutronsThis element is Nitrogen. Its mass # is 14. So mass # of 14, minus atomic # of 7, equals 7 neutrons.Count the number of protons. What element is it?
10How to Calculate Number of Electrons The number of electrons equal the number of protons.7 electrons7 protons
11How many neutrons does Mn (Manganese) have? 302555730
12How many Neutrons does K (Potassium) have? 19203911100 of 30
15IsotopesWhen atoms of the same element have a different number of neutrons
16Valence ElectronsThe electrons on the outermost ring or energy level that can be shared or transferred with other atoms to make compounds.
17Valence Electrons and Bonding (ch. 5.1 pgs. 176-182) The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines many properties of that element, including the ways in which the atom can bond with other atoms.
18When an atom has a different # of neutrons it’s called a… IonIsotopeProtonElement0 of 30
19What subatomic particle influences an elements ability to bond? 30ProtonsNeutronsValence ElectronsNucleus
20Groups –Familieselementsin agrouphave verysimilar characteristicsi.e. bonding, reactivity, valence electronsPeriods- elements in a period are not alike, but gradually change as you move from left to right.
21Almost 75% of all elements are classified as metals.
22Properties of MetalsConductors: Metals are good at conducting electricity.Malleable: Ability to bend or pound into shapes.
23Properties of Metals Ductile: Pull or stretch into wire. Many are shiny, hard and magnetic.High melting point
24Which of the following would be the best conductor of electricity? Carbon (atomic number 6)Strontium (atomic number 38)Tellurium (atomic number 52)of30
25What is a characteristic of metals? GasStableGood conductorBrittle30
26Metals are malleable, which means… Pound or mold into shapeBrittleStretch into wireof30
27What do all elements in a group/family have in common? Same # of Valence electronsSame # of protonsSame # of rings/shells/energy levelsof30
28ALKALI METALS-Group 1So reactive that they are never found isolated in nature, only combined with other elements.
29ALKALI METALS-Group 1 Characteristics Properties: Soft Shiny One valance: electron makes them very reactive.
30The Sodium in the class demo reacted so violently because it has… 303 protons1 neutron2 valence electrons1 valence electron
31What family is Hydrogen in? AlkaliAlkaline EarthHalogensNo Family0 of 30
32Ca: important for bones. Alkaline Earth MetalsGroup 2 metals.Very reactive, not as reactive as alkali metals due to having one more valence electron.Ca: important for bones.
33Metalloids Have some properties of both metals and nonmetals. They are located on the zigzag line between the metals and the nonmetals.Physical Properties:Can be good at conducting electricity, therefore some are used as computer chips such as Si and Ge.
34Non-metals Non metals lack properties of metals. They are on the right side of the periodic table.Non-metalsOFeFe2O3 = Iron Oxide = RustNon metals usually react with metals to make compounds.In general, metals give up electrons to non-metals.
35Properties of Metals cont… Reactivity: Ability to react and combine with other elements. Some are more reactive than others. Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are some of the most reactive metals.
36Which of the following elements is most likely to react? ChlorineHeliumIronof30
37What are the group 17 (7A) elements called? 30Alkaline EarthRare EarthHalogenTransition Metals
38What is the Group/Family name of the elements in BLUE? 30AlkaliAlkaline EarthTransitionMetalloidsHalogenNoble GasRare Earth
39What is the Group/Family name of the elements in RED? 30AlkaliAlkaline EarthTransitionMetalloidsHalogenNoble GasRare Earth
40What is the Group/Family name of the elements in GREEN? 30AlkaliAlkaline EarthTransitionMetalloidsHalogenNoble GasRare Earth
41Predicting ReactionsElements become more stable as they gain more valence electrons.As a result, atoms will gain, lose or share electrons to form compounds so that they have 8 valence electrons or a full shell.This is called the Octet Rule. However there are many exceptions, but this is an easy way to predict common reactions.
42Atoms are “happy” when they have either only 2 valence electrons (He) or 8electrons.
43Families of Non-metals The Halogen family is group 17 (7A). Each element has 7 valence electrons, therefore it commonly takes one electron away from group one metals to make compounds.
44Families of Non-metals The Noble Gases are group 18 (8A). They have 8 valence electrons, therefore they are very stable and non-reactive.
45Not a part of group 1. Generally found as H2 Hydrogen It doesn’t fit into any other family because it is so different from all other elements.
46Group 17 (7A) has 7 valence electrons and are called the 30Alkali metalsAlkaline Earth MetalsHalogensNoble Gases
47Group 18 (8A) has 8 valence electrons and are called 30Alkali metalsAlkaline Earth MetalsHalogensNoble Gases
48What element would Na (Sodium) bond with? 30BrKWAl
49What element would Mg (Magnesium) bond with? 30AuNaSeKr
50How many Hydrogen atoms would bond to one N (Nitrogen)? 6283
54ElementsCan’t be broken down into another substance.
55The smallest particle of an element. Basic unit of all matter AtomThe smallest particle of an element. Basic unit of all matter
56An ELEMENT is a pure substance made up of only one type of atom. Element vs. CompoundAn ELEMENT is a pure substance made up of only one type of atom.They may exist as atoms like the Noble Gases e.g. helium He or as molecules e.g. hydrogen H2 or sulfur S2
57Compound EX: H20water CO2Carbon Dioxide C12022H11 Sugar Chemical Combination of 2 or more DIFFERENT elements.EX: H20waterCO2Carbon DioxideC12022H11 SugarC6H12O6 Glucose
60Theobromine, C7H8O4N2 or Chocolate FormulaRatio of atoms of each element in a compound.Theobromine, C7H8O4N2 or Chocolate
61Law of Conservation of Matter Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change.It recombines to make a new type of chemical.
62Changes in MatterPhysical Change: When the state of matter changes.
63Physical Changewhipping egg whites (air is forced into the fluid, but no new substance is produced)magnetizing a compass needle (there is realignment of groups ("domains") of iron atoms, but no real change within the iron atoms themselves).boiling water (water molecules are forced away from each other when the liquid changes to vapor, but the molecules are still H2O.)dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules are dispersed within the water, but the individual sugar molecules are unchanged.)dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates molecules without changing them.)
64Changes in Matter cont… Chemical Change: When a substance(s) combines or decompose into a new substance.
66Examples of a chemical change iron rusting (iron oxide forms)gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon dioxide form)eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil and crosslink to form a network)bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates into carbon dioxide gas)milk souring (sour-tasting lactic acid is produced)suntanning (vitamin D and melanin is produced)
67Both physical and chemical change 5Chemical change onlyPhysical change onlyBoth physical and chemical change
68Both physical and chemical change 5Chemical change onlyPhysical change onlyBoth physical and chemical change
69He, O2, N2, and Ne are all:5AtomsElementsCompounds