Presentation on theme: " Psychology is a science, and therefore, based on research. Many people count on “intuition,” but that often leads us astray. Hindsight Bias – “I."— Presentation transcript:
Psychology is a science, and therefore, based on research. Many people count on “intuition,” but that often leads us astray. Hindsight Bias – “I knew it all along.” Kinds of research Applied research – to solve practical problems like what is the best way to teach children, or the effectiveness of a “quit-smoking” program
Kinds of Research, cont Basic Research – explores questions of interest to psychologists, but not intended to have immediate, real-world applications. How do people form their attitudes? How do different cultures define intelligence?
Most psychological research is guided by hypothesis. Hypothesis expresses a relationship between two variables. Variables are things that can vary among the participants in research The dependent variable depends on the independent variable.
Hypothesis: Watching violent television programs makes people more aggressive. Independent variable – watching television (because a change in the independent variable will produce a change in the dependent variable – aggression)
They sometimes grow out of theories. A theory aims to explain some phenomenon and allows researchers to generate testable hypothesis. Researchers must name the variables AND provide operational definitions of them. How will you measure it? What programs will be considered violent? Which behaviors will be considered aggressive?
Research is VALID when it measures what the researcher set out to measure; it is accurate Research is reliable when it can be replicated; it is consistent. If another researcher conducted the same research in the same way, they would get similar results. Bandura and his bobo dolls http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCETgT_Xfzg
The individuals on which the research will be conducted are called participants (or subjects) The process by which participants are selected is called Sampling. In order to select a sampling, you must first identify the population from which he sample will be selected.
The sampling must be representative of the larger population. Random selection is used to make sure that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Best random sampling is done by computer, or pulling names out of a hat
The larger the sampling, the more likely it is to represent the population. Stratified Sampling: If the population is 50% white, 30% African- American and 10% Hispanic, the sampling should be the same.