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Body Plans – Symmetry – Reproduction Development – Adaptations

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Presentation on theme: "Body Plans – Symmetry – Reproduction Development – Adaptations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Body Plans – Symmetry – Reproduction Development – Adaptations
Kingdom Animalia Body Plans – Symmetry – Reproduction Development – Adaptations

2 Basic Characteristics of Animals
*Eukaryotic* *Multicellular* *Heterotrophic*

3 A. Body Plans Coelom (def): body cavity surrounded by mesoderm.
Types of body plans: Acoelomate Pseudocoelomate Coelomate (true coelom)

4 Acoelomates *Animals with no cavity surrounding the gut. Examples:
flatworms, tapeworms, flukes Phylum of animals: Porifera &Platyhelminthes

5 Pseudocoelomates *Animals with a body cavity
surrounding the gut, but the gut is not surrounded by mesoderm. Examples: roundworm, hookworm, rotifers Phylum of animals: Nematoda

6 Coelomates *Animals with a true cavity surrounding the gut, and the
gut is completely surrounded by mesoderm. Examples: insects, snails, clams, humans Phylum of animals: Mollusca, Annelida, etc. This body plan helps animals move, gives space for complex organ systems and allows them to grow larger.

7 B. Symmetry Symmetry (def): arrangement (balance) of body parts.
Types of symmetry: Asymmetry Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry

8 Asymmetry *Animals w/an irregular shape Examples: sponges
Phylum of animals: Porifera

9 Radial Symmetry *Animals that have body parts
that radiate from a central point. Examples: sponges, starfish Problems: limits ability to move. *No head region

10 Bilateral Symmetry *Animals with a shape that is two sided, mirrored halves. Examples: humans, cats, dogs, horses. *Equal left & right halves, anterior & posterior sides, dorsal & ventral sides.

11 Bilateral Symmetry “DORSAL” [Back suface] “POSTERIOR” [Tail-end] “ANTERIOR” [Head- end] “VENTRAL” [Belly suface] *Organisms w/bilateral symmetry demonstrates cephalization. *Cephalization – head region w/sensory organs in anterior region.

12 Comparing Radial & Bilateral Symmetry

13 C. Reproduction in Animals
Types of Reproduction: Sexual & Asexual

14 ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Asexual Reproduction a.) involves only one parent
b.) no recombination of genes. “Budding” Examples of asexual reproduction: budding – group of cells pinch off the parent & mature into an adult regeneration – the ability to grow missing parts.

15 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sexual reproduction: a.) involves two parents
b.) recombines genes from two parents.

16 Terms in sexual reproduction…
hermaphrodite: Individuals who have both male & female reproductive organs. *usually sessile; this increases the chances of finding a mate. dioecious – means separate sexes (male and female organisms)

17 Types of Fertilization
External fertilization egg and sperm are released into the water Internal fertilization eggs are fertilized by sperm “INSIDE” the mother’s body.

18 Special terms in sexual reproduction…
SPAWNING The breeding behavior of fish

19 Special terms in sexual reproduction…
“ALBUMEN” *additional food and water “AMNION” *cushions and prevents dehydration “YOLK” *food supply “EMBRYO” *young animal “CHORION” *allows gas exchange “SHELL” *protection “ALLONTOIS” *collects waste AMNIOTE EGG An egg enclosed in amniotic fluid and membranes for protection

20 Special terms in sexual reproduction…
INCUBATION: warming of eggs so that they can mature and hatch. Ways of delivering young: a.) oviparous – laying eggs b.) ovoviviparous – eggs hatch inside the mother c.) viviparous – bear live young

21 Special terms in sexual reproduction…
gestation - term of pregnancy when the young develops in the uterus. Ex: *humans – 9 months *cats – 60 to 67 days Mammary glands - glands of female mammals that produce milk to feed the young.

22 D. Development Metamorphosis –
chemically controlled, radical changes in the body of an animal. Types of metamorphosis: a) complete metamorphosis EGG → LARVA → PUPA → ADULT b) incomplete metamorphosis EGG → NYMPH → ADULT Molting – shedding an old exoskeleton (allows the organism to grow)

23 E. Adaptations & Defenses
Coloration 1. camouflage – having colors that blend into the surroundings. 2. warning coloration – having bright colors to advertise defense

24 E. Adaptations & Defenses
Coloration 3. mimicry – harmless animal has the same coloration as a harmful one. 4. countershading – having dark colors on the top & lighter colors on the bottom.

25 E. Adaptations & Defenses
Activity Nocturnal – animals that are active at night. Diurnal – animals that are active during the day.

26 E. Adaptations & Defenses
Structures: fangs or stingers shells or spines venom or poison

27 F. Classification Class: Mammalia
Monotremes – lay eggs Ex: duck-bill platypus, anteaters Marsupials – young in pouches Ex: kangaroo, wombat Placental – young in uterus Ex: all other mammals

28 F. Classification Class: Arthropoda Characteristics:
1. 3 Body Sections: Head, thorax, and abdomen 2. 3 pair of legs, for a total of 6 legs.

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