2Basic Characteristics of Animals *Eukaryotic**Multicellular**Heterotrophic*
3A. Body Plans Coelom (def): body cavity surrounded by mesoderm. Types of body plans:AcoelomatePseudocoelomateCoelomate (true coelom)
4Acoelomates *Animals with no cavity surrounding the gut. Examples: flatworms, tapeworms, flukesPhylum of animals:Porifera &Platyhelminthes
5Pseudocoelomates *Animals with a body cavity surrounding the gut, but the gutis not surrounded by mesoderm.Examples:roundworm, hookworm, rotifersPhylum of animals:Nematoda
6Coelomates *Animals with a true cavity surrounding the gut, and the gut is completely surroundedby mesoderm.Examples:insects, snails, clams, humansPhylum of animals:Mollusca, Annelida, etc.This body plan helps animals move,gives space for complex organ systemsand allows them to grow larger.
7B. Symmetry Symmetry (def): arrangement (balance) of body parts. Types of symmetry:AsymmetryRadial symmetryBilateral symmetry
8Asymmetry *Animals w/an irregular shape Examples: sponges Phylum of animals:Porifera
9Radial Symmetry *Animals that have body parts that radiate from a central point.Examples:sponges, starfishProblems:limits ability to move.*No head region
10Bilateral Symmetry*Animals with a shape that is two sided, mirrored halves.Examples: humans, cats, dogs, horses.*Equal left & right halves, anterior & posterior sides,dorsal & ventral sides.
11Bilateral Symmetry“DORSAL”[Back suface]“POSTERIOR”[Tail-end]“ANTERIOR”[Head- end]“VENTRAL”[Belly suface]*Organisms w/bilateral symmetry demonstrates cephalization.*Cephalization – head region w/sensory organs in anterior region.
13C. Reproduction in Animals Types of Reproduction:Sexual & Asexual
14ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Asexual Reproduction a.) involves only one parent b.) no recombination of genes.“Budding”Examples of asexual reproduction:budding – group of cells pinch off the parent & mature into an adultregeneration – the ability to grow missing parts.
15SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sexual reproduction: a.) involves two parents b.) recombines genes from two parents.
16Terms in sexual reproduction… hermaphrodite:Individuals who have both male & female reproductive organs.*usually sessile; this increases the chances of finding a mate.dioecious –means separate sexes (male and female organisms)
17Types of Fertilization External fertilizationegg and sperm arereleased into the waterInternal fertilizationeggs are fertilized by sperm“INSIDE” the mother’s body.
18Special terms in sexual reproduction… SPAWNINGThe breeding behavior of fish
19Special terms in sexual reproduction… “ALBUMEN”*additionalfood and water“AMNION”*cushions and preventsdehydration“YOLK”*food supply“EMBRYO”*young animal“CHORION”*allows gas exchange“SHELL”*protection“ALLONTOIS”*collects wasteAMNIOTE EGGAn egg enclosed in amniotic fluid and membranes for protection
20Special terms in sexual reproduction… INCUBATION: warming of eggs sothat they can mature and hatch.Ways of delivering young:a.) oviparous – laying eggsb.) ovoviviparous – eggs hatch inside the motherc.) viviparous – bear live young
21Special terms in sexual reproduction… gestation - term of pregnancy whenthe young develops in the uterus.Ex: *humans – 9 months*cats – 60 to 67 daysMammary glands- glands of female mammalsthat produce milk to feed the young.
22D. Development Metamorphosis – chemically controlled, radical changes in the body of an animal.Types of metamorphosis:a) complete metamorphosis EGG → LARVA → PUPA → ADULTb) incomplete metamorphosis EGG → NYMPH → ADULTMolting – shedding an old exoskeleton (allows the organism to grow)
23E. Adaptations & Defenses Coloration1. camouflage – having colors that blend into the surroundings.2. warning coloration – having bright colors to advertise defense
24E. Adaptations & Defenses Coloration3. mimicry – harmless animal has the same coloration as a harmful one.4. countershading – having dark colors on the top & lighter colors on the bottom.
25E. Adaptations & Defenses ActivityNocturnal – animals that are active at night.Diurnal – animals that are active during the day.
26E. Adaptations & Defenses Structures:fangs or stingersshells or spinesvenom or poison
27F. Classification Class: Mammalia Monotremes – lay eggs Ex: duck-bill platypus, anteatersMarsupials – young in pouches Ex: kangaroo, wombatPlacental – young in uterus Ex: all other mammals
28F. Classification Class: Arthropoda Characteristics: 1. 3 Body Sections: Head, thorax, and abdomen2. 3 pair of legs, for a total of 6 legs.