Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Animalia Body Plans – Symmetry – Reproduction Development – Adaptations."— Presentation transcript:
Kingdom Animalia Body Plans – Symmetry – Reproduction Development – Adaptations
Basic Characteristics of Animals *Eukaryotic* *Multicellular* *Heterotrophic*
A. Body Plans Coelom (def): body cavity surrounded by mesoderm. Types of body plans: 1.Acoelomate 2.Pseudocoelomate 3.Coelomate (true coelom)
Acoelomates *Animals with no cavity surrounding the gut. Examples: flatworms, tapeworms, flukes Phylum of animals: Porifera &Platyhelminthes
Pseudocoelomates *Animals with a body cavity surrounding the gut, but the gut is not surrounded by mesoderm. Examples: roundworm, hookworm, rotifers Phylum of animals: Nematoda
Coelomates *Animals with a true cavity surrounding the gut, and the gut is completely surrounded by mesoderm. Examples: insects, snails, clams, humans Phylum of animals: Mollusca, Annelida, etc. This body plan helps animals move, gives space for complex organ systems and allows them to grow larger.
B. Symmetry Symmetry (def): arrangement (balance) of body parts. Types of symmetry: 1.Asymmetry 2.Radial symmetry 3.Bilateral symmetry
Radial Symmetry *Animals that have body parts that radiate from a central point. Examples: sponges, starfish Problems: limits ability to move. *No head region
Bilateral Symmetry *Animals with a shape that is two sided, mirrored halves. Examples: humans, cats, dogs, horses. *Equal left & right halves, anterior & posterior sides, dorsal & ventral sides.
Bilateral Symmetry *Organisms w/bilateral symmetry demonstrates cephalization. *Cephalization – head region w/sensory organs in anterior region. VENTRAL [Belly suface] POSTERIOR [Tail-end] ANTERIOR [Head- end] DORSAL [Back suface]
Comparing Radial & Bilateral Symmetry
C. Reproduction in Animals Types of Reproduction: Sexual & Asexual
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Examples of asexual reproduction: budding – group of cells pinch off the parent & mature into an adult regeneration – the ability to grow missing parts. Asexual Reproduction a.) involves only one parent b.) no recombination of genes. Budding
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sexual reproduction: a.) involves two parents b.) recombines genes from two parents.
Terms in sexual reproduction… hermaphrodite: Individuals who have both male & female reproductive organs. *usually sessile; this increases the chances of finding a mate. dioecious – means separate sexes (male and female organisms)
Types of Fertilization External fertilization egg and sperm are released into the water Internal fertilization eggs are fertilized by sperm INSIDE the mothers body.
Special terms in sexual reproduction… SPAWNING The breeding behavior of fish
Special terms in sexual reproduction… AMNIOTE EGG An egg enclosed in amniotic fluid and membranes for protection CHORION *allows gas exchange EMBRYO *young animal AMNION *cushions and prevents dehydration ALBUMEN *additional food and water YOLK *food supply SHELL *protection ALLONTOIS *collects waste
Special terms in sexual reproduction… INCUBATION: warming of eggs so that they can mature and hatch. Ways of delivering young: a.) oviparous – laying eggs b.)ovoviviparous – eggs hatch inside the mother c.) viviparous – bear live young
Special terms in sexual reproduction… gestation - term of pregnancy when the young develops in the uterus. Ex: *humans – 9 months *cats – 60 to 67 days Mammary glands - glands of female mammals that produce milk to feed the young.
Development D. Development Metamorphosis – chemically controlled, radical changes in the body of an animal. Types of metamorphosis: a)complete metamorphosisEGG LARVA PUPA ADULT b)incomplete metamorphosisEGG NYMPH ADULT Molting – shedding an old exoskeleton (allows the organism to grow)
Adaptations & Defenses E. Adaptations & Defenses Coloration 1.camouflage – having colors that blend into the surroundings. 2.warning coloration – having bright colors to advertise defense
Adaptations & Defenses E. Adaptations & Defenses Coloration 3.mimicry – harmless animal has the same coloration as a harmful one. 4.countershading – having dark colors on the top & lighter colors on the bottom.
Adaptations & Defenses E. Adaptations & Defenses Activity Nocturnal – animals that are active at night. Diurnal – animals that are active during the day.
Adaptations & Defenses E. Adaptations & Defenses Structures: fangs or stingers shells or spines venom or poison
F. Classification Class: Mammalia 1.Monotremes – lay eggsEx: duck-bill platypus, anteaters 2.Marsupials – young in pouchesEx: kangaroo, wombat 3.Placental – young in uterusEx: all other mammals
F. Classification Class: Arthropoda Characteristics: 1.3 Body Sections: Head, thorax, and abdomen 2.3 pair of legs, for a total of 6 legs.