2Lesson #1 Introduction to Persuasive Writing I. Bell RingerShow Clip from “Supersize Me”
3Ask the following:Does this video change your opinion of fast food?What is the purpose of a video like this?What other examples have you encountered of videos or TV ads like this?
4Lesson #1II. TransitionUsing the example of the “Supersize Me” clip or other examples provided by students, provide students with an introduction to the definition of persuasive writing and different parts of a persuasive piece.
5Using the same examples, connect persuasion to everyday life Using the same examples, connect persuasion to everyday life. Students will be able to see that persuasive writing is a part of their daily lives. Students will learn the basic structure of putting together a persuasive piece.
6Lesson #1 III. Purpose SWBAT Identify the parts of persuasive writing Appreciate the usefulness of persuasive writingDemonstrate the ability to state a clear main ideaDemonstrate the ability to support an opinion with factsDemonstrate the ability to summarize
7Lesson # 1 IV. Input, Anticipatory Sets, Anticipated Scaffolding Persuasive writing- a form of writing which convinces an audience to share a belief with the speaker-Can you think of a profession which would use persuasive writing frequently?
8Persuasive writing begins with an introduction stating the topic being discussed and the opinion of the author. -What are some words or phrases that can be used to state an opinion? If you are for something, then you are on the “pro” side. If you are against something, you are on the “con” side.
9You must then support your opinion with facts You must then support your opinion with facts. Facts are statements which can be supported by evidence. -What are some words or phrases that can be used to state a fact? After providing examples of facts which support your opinion, you summarize your argument in a conclusion. The conclusion should highlight the main points of your argument and restate your main idea.
10Lesson #1 V. Practice and Application Activity 1 – Identifying the Main IdeaSelect a story and take the quiz for the story to practice identifying the main idea of a paragraph.What key words help identify what the main idea is?
11Activity 2- Summarizing Break into groups of 3 or 4 and select a person from a biography list.Use online summary guide to organize important facts into a summary.Share your summaries. Why did you chose the information you included in the summary? How did you decide what information was important?
12Activity 3 – Putting it all Together Use online persuasion writing guide to practice putting together a persuasive paper.Were the pre-writing exercises helpful to help you get organized? How did you decide what was important to your paper?
13Lesson # 1 VI. ClosureHow do you think you would use persuasive writing?What are the key words used to identify a main idea? A fact? An opinion?What points should be included in a summary?While at home, review newspaper and magazine articles. Highlight the main idea, and any opinions or facts. Summarize the article.
14Lesson #2 Using Research in Persuasive Writing Bell RingerShow students a series of slides. After each, ask if it is fact or opinion.
15The capital of Pennsylvania is Harrisburg. Fact or opinion?
17Disneyland is a great place for a family vacation. Fact or opinion?
18One in four people are left handed. Fact or opinion?
19You shouldn’t eat before bedtime. Fact or opinion?
20Lesson #2 II. TransitionWhat makes a fact a fact? Do you feel these facts are true? Identify facts and opinions in the articles from the previous day’s assignment.
21How do you know which are facts and which are opinions How do you know which are facts and which are opinions? How can you verify facts? What resources could you use? How would you know it’s reliable? How would you introduce facts and opinions in writing? What are some key phrases you can use?
22Lesson # 2 III. Purpose SWBAT Understand the importance of using research to backup an opinionIdentify what a reliable source isUtilize resources available including the Internet to find supporting evidence to use in a persuasive argument
23Lesson #2 IV. Input, anticipatory sets, anticipated scaffolding Think of popular crime shows on TV. (CSI, Law and Order, Cold Case) How do the characters on these shows form opinions from the evidence they find? Do their opinions change when they find new evidence or facts?What about other TV shows? Think of a show you watch often. Do you think that you would be able to predict what will happen on the next episode? Why? What has happened in previous episodes that would make you think that?
24Lesson #2 IV. Input, anticipatory sets, anticipated scaffolding Have you ever used a search engine online? Which ones do you use? When you search, do you type in just a few words or exactly what you are searching for? If you were looking to find out how long sea turtles lived, what words would you type into the search engine?Do you know of any specific websites that would be good for finding information? If you were looking for information on sea turtles, what kind of websites would you visit?
25Lesson #2 V. Practice and Application Activity 1- Fact or OpinionFact or Opinion JeopardyHow were you able to determine which was fact and which was opinion? Were there any clues or key words in the sentences?
26Activity 2- Find the Facts Here is a list of questions.Go online to find the answers to the questions. Be sure to record what website they found the answers on.How did you find the answers to the questions? Was there a specific website you used? How were you sure you had found the correct answer?
27Activity 3- Organizing Information Select a topic and form an opinion.Use the Internet to search for information regarding your topics.Use persuasion map to organize your thoughts.
28Lesson #2 VI. ClosureDo you have a better understanding of using the Internet to find information?Why it is important in persuasive writing to have accurate information? What do you think would happen if you use false information to make a persuasive argument?
29Lesson #2 VI. Closure3) At home review the worksheet containing topics. Using a the topics, find information online, 2 facts for the pro side, 2 facts for the con side. Record what website they found the information on.
30Lesson #3 Presenting a Persuasive Argument Bell RingerShow clip from 1992 Presidential DebateIntroduce the students, if they don’t already know President George Bush and President Clinton
31Ask the following questions: Who do you think made the best argument?What do you notice about tone of voice and posture?What facts were used to answer the question?
32Lesson # 3 II. Transition to Purpose Why does one man’s argument seem clearer than the other? Why was President Bush interrupted and redirected to the question at hand? How important is it to know your subject during a persuasive argument? How do you respond to questions?
33Lesson #3 III. Purpose SWBAT Demonstrate an ability to express a clear opinionProduce reliable evidence to support an opinionEngage an audience in a topic they are presentingRespond to questions regarding their opinion
34Lesson #3 IV. Input, Anticipatory Sets, Anticipated Scaffolding Why is persuasive writing so important? What are the most important parts of a persuasive argument? How would you find reliable information? What was most effective in the presidential debate? What about tone of voice? Can you think of a celebrity with a distinct or unique voice?
35Are you more likely to side with someone who spoke too softly or too loudly? Is a person more creditable if they are direct in their statements? Can you think of any famous person you would be less likely to believe based on how they sound?
36Lesson # 3 V. Practice and Application Activity 1- Pro vs. ConBreak into groups of 3 or 4. Using the previous night’s assignment, alternate between pro and con and present the arguments you researched the night before.Discuss what you thought was the most effective argument in the group.
37Activity 2- What Makes an Effective Argument? Review a copy of a famous persuasive speech.Highlight what elements you thought were most effective. Share your thoughts with the class.
38Activity 3- Preparing and Presenting a Persuasive Argument In groups of 4, use the online organizer to prepare a short persuasive argument.Each group will present their paper. One student will present the introduction, one will present the first argument, one will present the second argument, and one will present the conclusion
39Lesson #3 VI. ClosureHow did your presentation illustrate the points of persuasive writing? How do you think you can use the techniques of persuasive writing learned here in your everyday life?
40Topics for Persuasion1) You should be able to get your learner’s permit when you enter high school.2) Students should be in charge of what lessons are taught in school3) Television and video games contain too much violence.4) School should be year round.5) There should be a curfew for kids under 18.
41Speeches President Regan at Berlin Wall In Europe, only one nation and those it controls refuse to join the community of freedom. Yet in this age of redoubled economic growth, of information and innovation, the Soviet Union faces a choice: It must make fundamental changes, or it will become obsolete. Today thus represents a moment of hope. We in the West stand ready to cooperate with the East to promote true openness, to break down barriers that separate people, to create a safer, freer world.
42And surely there is no better place than Berlin, the meeting place of East and West, to make a start. Free people of Berlin: Today, as in the past, the United States stands for the strict observance and full implementation of all parts of the Four Power Agreement of Let us use this occasion, the 750th anniversary of this city, to usher in a new era, to seek a still fuller, richer life for the Berlin of the future. Together, let us maintain and develop the ties between the Federal Republic and the Western sectors of Berlin, which is permitted by the 1971 agreement. And I invite Mr. Gorbachev: Let us work to bring the Eastern and Western parts of the city closer together, so that all the inhabitants of all Berlin can enjoy the benefits that come wit h life in one of the great cities of the world. To open Berlin still further to all Europe, East and West, let us expand the vital air access to this city, finding ways of making commercial air service to Berlin more convenient, more comfortable, and more economical. We look to the day when West Berlin can become one of the chief aviation hubs in all central Europe.
43With our French and British partners, the United States is prepared to help bring international meetings to Berlin. It would be only fitting for Berlin to serve as the site of United Nations meetings, or world conferences on human rights and arms control or other issues that call for international cooperation. There is no better way to establish hope for the future than to enlighten young minds, and we would be honored to sponsor summer youth exchanges, cultural events, and other programs for young Berliners from the East. Our French and British friends, I'm certain, will do the same. And it's my hope that an authority can be found in East Berlin to sponsor visits from young people of the Western sectors. One final proposal, one close to my heart: Sport represents a source of enjoyment and ennoblement, and you many have noted that the Republic of Korea-South Korea- has offered to permit certain events of the 1988 Olympics to take place in the North. Inter national sports competitions of all kinds could take place in both parts of this city. And what better way to demonstrate to the world the openness of this city than to offer in some future year to hold the Olympic games here in Berlin, East and West?
44In these four decades, as I have said, you Berliners have built a great city. You've done so in spite of threats - the Soviet attempts to impose the East-mark, the blockade. Today the city thrives in spite of the challenges implicit in the very presence of this wall. What keeps you here? Certainly there's a great deal to be said for your fortitude, for your defiant courage. But I believe there's something deeper, something that involves Berlin's whole look and feel and way of life-not mere sentiment. No on e could live long in Berlin without being completely disabused of illusions. Something instead, that has seen the difficulties of life in Berlin but chose to accept them, that continues to build this good and proud city in contrast to a surrounding totalitarian presence that refuses to release human energies or aspirations. Something that speaks with a powerful voice of affirmation, that says yes to this city, yes to the future, yes to freedom. In a word, I would submit that what keeps you in Berlin is love - love both profound and abiding.
45Perhaps this gets to the root of the matter, to the most fundamental distinction of all between East and West. The totalitarian world produces backwardness because it does such violence to the spirit, thwarting the human impulse to create, to enjoy, to worship. The totalitarian world finds even symbols of love and of worship an affront. Years ago, before the East Germans began rebuilding their churches, they erected a secular structure: the television tower at Alexander Platz. Virtually ever since, the authorities have been working to correct what they view as the tower's one major flaw, treating the glass sphere at the top with paints and chemicals of every kind. Yet even today when the Sun strikes that sphere-that sphere that towers over all Berlin-the light makes the sign of the cross. There in Berlin, like the city itself, symbols of love, symbols of worship, cannot be suppressed. As I looked out a moment ago from the Reichstag, that embodiment of German unity, I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner, "This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality." Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom.
46And I would like, before I close, to say one word And I would like, before I close, to say one word. I have read, and I have been questioned since I've been here about certain demonstrations against my coming. And I would like to say just one thing, and to those who demonstrate so. I wonder if they have ever asked themselves that if they should have the kind of government they apparently seek, no one would ever be able to do what they're doing again.
47Dr. Martin Luther King Jr Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
48It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of colour are concerned. Instead of honouring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check -- a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquillising drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God's children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quick-sands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquillity in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.
49But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvellous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.
50I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama, whose governor's lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
51This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with a new meaning, "My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring." And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California! But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee! Let freedom ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
52John F Kennedy Jr In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. Now the trumpet summons us again - not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are - but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation" - a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?
53In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shank from this responsibility - I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it -- and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.