2Protista The protist kingdom is broken down into three main groups. The Animal-like protists,Plant-like protistsFungi-like protists.
3ProtistaEach group have some characteristics in common with the plants, animal and fungi kingdoms but not enough to qualify for membership in that Kingdom.
4ProtistaSince the members of this Kingdom would not fit into the Animal, Plant and Fungi Kingdoms, it was determined that these odd eukaryotes would form their very own kingdom.
5Protozoan Animal-like protists Single celled, microscopic Move independently using pseudopods, cilia, flagellaLive in all aquatic environments and is moist soil or organic matterHeterotrophic , ingest small molecules or cells that are usually broken down in food vacuoles
6Protozoan Most are free-living but some are parasitic Parasitic species may cause disease including malaria, amebic dysentery and GiardiasisMany species make up zooplankton in sea, an important food source of larger sea organisms
7Protozoan Reproduction: Capable of asexual and in time of environmental stress they can reproduce of sexual reproductionAsexual – binary fission or mitosisMultiple fission- can produce more than two new organisms that are genetically identicalSexual - conjugation
9Protozoan Adaptations: Some species have mechanisms for monitoring and responding to their environment.Some species have eyespots – light sensing pigments.Some species have the ability to sense chemical and physical changes in the environment.Can survive harsh environmental conditions by forming a cyst. A hardened external covering in which metabolic activity stops.
10Phylum Sarcodina Includes all amoebas. Inhabit fresh and salt water and moist soil.Move using pseudopodia.Has a contractile vacuole to maintain correct balance of water.
11Sarcodina Naked amoeba’s – do not have a shell Foraminifera – have shells called tests made of calcium carbonate which is responsible for much of the limestone rock formationsRadiolarians –radial shape with a silicon dioxide shellSome parasitic species can cause amebic dysentery
12AmoebaCell membraneHas a contractile vacuole to expel excess water, without this structure the amoeba would burst from osmosis
15Protozoan Phylum Ciliophora. Members include paramecium. Cilia – short hair-like structures for movement.Oral groove, mouth pore, gullet and anal pore is like a primitive digestive system.Reproduction:asexual by binary fissionSexual by conjugation
16ParameciumParamecium is a group of protists found in aquatic communities
18Protozoa Phylum Zoomastigina Have one or more flagella Many species are free-living in aquatic environmentsImpact to humans:Some members cause disease to animals and humansTrypanosomiasis- sleeping sickness spread by infected tsetse fliesChagas disease- transmitted by the kissing bugLeishmaniasis- transmitted by sand fleasGiardiasis – contracted through contaminated water
19Protozoa Phylum Sporozoa No means of locomotion, most species are parasitic and cause diseaseComplex life cycles produce sporesCarried in the blood and tissues of their host and destroy host cellsDiseases include: toxoplasmosis, fatal to unborn babies but not adults with healthy immune systemsCarried by cats, birds, rodents
20Protozoa Phylum protozoa Include Plasmodium Causes malaria Carried by mosquitoes
23AlgaeCharacteristics: are most plant-like and can make their own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.Often form the base of aquatic food chains
24Algae- Plant-like Protists Characteristics:May be single or multicellularAutotrophic- photosynthesisClosely related to the plant Kingdom butLack tissue of differentiation, no true roots, stems or leaves and the reproductive process of alternation of generations is slightly different than that of plants
25Algae Body portion is called a thallus and is usually haploid Structure:Body portion is called a thallus and is usually haploidMay be unicellular, multicellular colonial, filamentous
26Algae Environment Make up a major portion of phytoplankton Important to the food chain of aquatic habitatsPhotosynthesis provides a major portion of worlds oxygen
27Algae Based on color of photosynthetic pigments Classification:Based on color of photosynthetic pigmentsForm of food storage substanceCell wall composition
28AlgaeReproduction:Many species reproduce by both sexual and asexual meansSome species only reproduce asexuallyAsexual reproduction by mitosisSexual reproduction includes production of haploid spores that fuse and become a zygoteAlternation of generations
29Algae Phylum Chlorophyta Green Algae – contain chlorophyll Large range of reproduction and formsSingle celled and multicelledMost species are aquaticSome live in moist terrestrial habitatsSome live symbiotically in the bodies of invertebrates -lichen
30AlgaePhylum Chlorophyta.Green algae have many similarities to plants and are believed to have given rise to plants.
38Botryoglossum ruprechtianum Literally meaning "grape tongue" doesn't help much in identifying this alga. However, its ruffled edges along with its foliose thallus are characters that may help you recognize it prior to tripping over it in the intertidal.
39The giant of the sea, Chondracanthus corymbiferus This alga is huge! It can reach up to 2 meters in length. It is thick and leathery and often covered with reproductive bumps called papillae
40Chondracanthus harveyanus This is another one of those "Cartilaginous tooths" or Chondracanthus species. It may look spiny, but when its found fresh in the intertidal, the blades are velvet-like to the touch. A definite favorite and award winning alga!
41Gelidium purpurascens The agar (the stuff in petri dishes to stiffen bacteria food, also found in puddings, jellies, mayonnaise, and laxatives) containing seaweed . This seaweed is not purple, but bright red, and very useful economically.
42Algae Phylum Bacillariophyta Diatoms Abundant in all aquatic habitats Cell walls are shell-like made of silicon dioxideTwo shapesCentric diatoms – circle shapedPennate- rectangular shaped
45Algae Phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms) Abundant component of phytoplanktonWhen they die their shells collect at the bottom of the ocean which are mined by humans and used as abrasives in detergents, in paint to make it reflect light, Paint removers, fertilizers, insulators and toothpaste
46Algae Phylum Dinoflagellata Usually unicellular Usually photosynthetic but a few species are colorless heterotrophsMake up most of the organic matter in marine environmentsPhotosynthetic members have brownish-yellow pigments
48Algae Phylum Dinoflagellata. Most have flagella two different lengths that run perpendicular to each other causing them to spin.Some species bioluminescence.Some species produce toxins and red pigments, when their populations explode they turn crimson color we call red tide. These toxins are dangerous to humans who eat effected fish. This is the algae the gives the U of A football team the name crimson tide.
49Algae Phylum Chrysophyta Golden algae Most live in fresh water Form highly resistant cysts that enable them to survive beneath frozen surfaces in lakes, pods and streamsTwo flagella located at one endMost are yellow or brownStore surplus food as oilImportant in the formation of petroleum deposits
55Algae Phylum Euglenophyta Most species live in fresh water Some species live in moist soilSome live in the digestive tract of certain animals, and do not have chloroplasts so they become heterotrophsUses a contractile vacuole to balance fluidsThe beloved Euglena is a member of this group
56Fungus-like Slime Molds Slime molds are divided into two phylaThey are not closely related but have some characteristics in commonSpend part of their life in a mobile amoeba-like form engulfing organic matterProduce fungus reproductive structuresFound in damp soil, and decomposing organic matterThey glisten and are viscous masses of white, yellow or red globs
57Fungus-like Protists Slime Molds Phylum AcrasiomtycotaCellular slime moldsHaploidIn times of stress chemical are excreted attracting other members and huddlePseudoplasmodium is a colony resembling a slugPhylum MyxomycotaPlasmoidial slimeMass of cytoplasm (plasmodium)decomposer