Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Protista The Catch-all Kingdom Protista The protist kingdom is broken down into three main groups. The protist kingdom is broken down into three."— Presentation transcript:
Kingdom Protista The Catch-all Kingdom
Protista The protist kingdom is broken down into three main groups. The protist kingdom is broken down into three main groups. –The Animal-like protists, –Plant-like protists –Fungi-like protists.
Protista Each group have some characteristics in common with the plants, animal and fungi kingdoms but not enough to qualify for membership in that Kingdom. Each group have some characteristics in common with the plants, animal and fungi kingdoms but not enough to qualify for membership in that Kingdom.
Protista Since the members of this Kingdom would not fit into the Animal, Plant and Fungi Kingdoms, it was determined that these odd eukaryotes would form their very own kingdom. Since the members of this Kingdom would not fit into the Animal, Plant and Fungi Kingdoms, it was determined that these odd eukaryotes would form their very own kingdom.
Protozoan Animal-like protists Animal-like protists –Single celled, microscopic –Move independently using pseudopods, cilia, flagella –Live in all aquatic environments and is moist soil or organic matter –Heterotrophic, ingest small molecules or cells that are usually broken down in food vacuoles
Protozoan Most are free-living but some are parasitic Most are free-living but some are parasitic –Parasitic species may cause disease including malaria, amebic dysentery and Giardiasis Many species make up zooplankton in sea, an important food source of larger sea organisms Many species make up zooplankton in sea, an important food source of larger sea organisms
Protozoan Reproduction: Reproduction: –Capable of asexual and in time of environmental stress they can reproduce of sexual reproduction Asexual – binary fission or mitosis Asexual – binary fission or mitosis –Multiple fission- can produce more than two new organisms that are genetically identical Sexual - conjugation Sexual - conjugation
Protozoan Adaptations: Adaptations: –Some species have mechanisms for monitoring and responding to their environment. Some species have eyespots – light sensing pigments. Some species have eyespots – light sensing pigments. Some species have the ability to sense chemical and physical changes in the environment. Some species have the ability to sense chemical and physical changes in the environment. Can survive harsh environmental conditions by forming a cyst. A hardened external covering in which metabolic activity stops. Can survive harsh environmental conditions by forming a cyst. A hardened external covering in which metabolic activity stops.
Phylum Sarcodina Includes all amoebas. Includes all amoebas. –Inhabit fresh and salt water and moist soil. –Move using pseudopodia. –Has a contractile vacuole to maintain correct balance of water.
Sarcodina Sarcodina Naked amoebas – do not have a shell Naked amoebas – do not have a shell Foraminifera – have shells called tests made of calcium carbonate which is responsible for much of the limestone rock formations Foraminifera – have shells called tests made of calcium carbonate which is responsible for much of the limestone rock formations Radiolarians –radial shape with a silicon dioxide shell Radiolarians –radial shape with a silicon dioxide shell Some parasitic species can cause amebic dysentery Some parasitic species can cause amebic dysentery
Amoeba Cell membrane Cell membrane Has a contractile vacuole to expel excess water, without this structure the amoeba would burst from osmosis Has a contractile vacuole to expel excess water, without this structure the amoeba would burst from osmosis
Protozoan Phylum Ciliophora. Phylum Ciliophora. –Members include paramecium. –Cilia – short hair-like structures for movement. –Oral groove, mouth pore, gullet and anal pore is like a primitive digestive system. –Reproduction: asexual by binary fission asexual by binary fission Sexual by conjugation Sexual by conjugation
Paramecium Paramecium is a group of protists found in aquatic communities Paramecium is a group of protists found in aquatic communities
Protozoa Phylum Zoomastigina Phylum Zoomastigina –Have one or more flagella –Many species are free-living in aquatic environments –Impact to humans: Some members cause disease to animals and humans Some members cause disease to animals and humans –Trypanosomiasis- sleeping sickness spread by infected tsetse flies –Chagas disease- transmitted by the kissing bug –Leishmaniasis- transmitted by sand fleas –Giardiasis – contracted through contaminated water
Protozoa Phylum Sporozoa Phylum Sporozoa –No means of locomotion, most species are parasitic and cause disease –Complex life cycles produce spores –Carried in the blood and tissues of their host and destroy host cells –Diseases include: toxoplasmosis, fatal to unborn babies but not adults with healthy immune systems Carried by cats, birds, rodents Carried by cats, birds, rodents
Protozoa Phylum protozoa Phylum protozoa –Include Plasmodium Causes malaria Causes malaria Carried by mosquitoes Carried by mosquitoes
anopheline mosquitoes anopheline mosquitoes
Algae Characteristics: are most plant-like and can make their own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Characteristics: are most plant-like and can make their own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Often form the base of aquatic food chains Often form the base of aquatic food chains
Algae- Plant-like Protists Characteristics: Characteristics: –May be single or multicellular –Autotrophic- photosynthesis –Closely related to the plant Kingdom but Lack tissue of differentiation, no true roots, stems or leaves and the reproductive process of alternation of generations is slightly different than that of plants Lack tissue of differentiation, no true roots, stems or leaves and the reproductive process of alternation of generations is slightly different than that of plants
Algae Structure: Structure: –Body portion is called a thallus and is usually haploid –May be unicellular, multicellular colonial, filamentous
Algae Environment Environment –Make up a major portion of phytoplankton –Important to the food chain of aquatic habitats –Photosynthesis provides a major portion of worlds oxygen
Algae Classification: Classification: –Based on color of photosynthetic pigments –Form of food storage substance –Cell wall composition
Algae Reproduction: Reproduction: –Many species reproduce by both sexual and asexual means Some species only reproduce asexually Some species only reproduce asexually –Asexual reproduction by mitosis –Sexual reproduction includes production of haploid spores that fuse and become a zygote –Alternation of generations
Algae Phylum Chlorophyta Phylum Chlorophyta –Green Algae – contain chlorophyll –Large range of reproduction and forms –Single celled and multicelled –Most species are aquatic –Some live in moist terrestrial habitats –Some live symbiotically in the bodies of invertebrates -lichen
Algae Phylum Chlorophyta. Phylum Chlorophyta. –Green algae have many similarities to plants and are believed to have given rise to plants.
Algae Phylum Phaeophyta Phylum Phaeophyta –Brown Algae include several species of seaweed and kelp –Mostly live in aquatic environments –All species are multicellular –Used by humans for medicine, cosmetics, and food
Alaria the winged kelps
Algae Phylum Rhodophyta Phylum Rhodophyta Red Algae Red Algae Live in fresh and salt water, moist soil, can be found deep in the ocean Live in fresh and salt water, moist soil, can be found deep in the ocean Used for medicines, cosmetics. Gelatin cubes, and food Used for medicines, cosmetics. Gelatin cubes, and food
Botryoglossum ruprechtianum Literally meaning "grape tongue" doesn't help much in identifying this alga. However, its ruffled edges along with its foliose thallus are characters that may help you recognize it prior to tripping over it in the intertidal.
The giant of the sea, Chondracanthus corymbiferus This alga is huge! It can reach up to 2 meters in length. It is thick and leathery and often covered with reproductive bumps called papillae
Chondracanthus harveyanus This is another one of those "Cartilaginous tooths" or Chondracanthus species. It may look spiny, but when its found fresh in the intertidal, the blades are velvet-like to the touch. A definite favorite and award winning alga!
Gelidium purpurascens The agar (the stuff in petri dishes to stiffen bacteria food, also found in puddings, jellies, mayonnaise, and laxatives) containing seaweed. This seaweed is not purple, but bright red, and very useful economically.
Algae Phylum Bacillariophyta Phylum Bacillariophyta –Diatoms Abundant in all aquatic habitats Abundant in all aquatic habitats Cell walls are shell-like made of silicon dioxide Cell walls are shell-like made of silicon dioxide Two shapes Two shapes –Centric diatoms – circle shaped –Pennate- rectangular shaped
Algae Phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms) Phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms) –Abundant component of phytoplankton –When they die their shells collect at the bottom of the ocean which are mined by humans and used as abrasives in detergents, in paint to make it reflect light, Paint removers, fertilizers, insulators and toothpaste
Algae Phylum Dinoflagellata Phylum Dinoflagellata –Usually unicellular –Usually photosynthetic but a few species are colorless heterotrophs –Make up most of the organic matter in marine environments –Photosynthetic members have brownish- yellow pigments
Algae Phylum Dinoflagellata. Phylum Dinoflagellata. –Most have flagella two different lengths that run perpendicular to each other causing them to spin. –Some species bioluminescence. –Some species produce toxins and red pigments, when their populations explode they turn crimson color we call red tide. These toxins are dangerous to humans who eat effected fish. This is the algae the gives the U of A football team the name crimson tide.
Algae Phylum Chrysophyta Phylum Chrysophyta –Golden algae –Most live in fresh water –Form highly resistant cysts that enable them to survive beneath frozen surfaces in lakes, pods and streams –Two flagella located at one end –Most are yellow or brown –Store surplus food as oil –Important in the formation of petroleum deposits
Algae Phylum Euglenophyta – Phylum Euglenophyta – euglenoids euglenoids –Flagellated –Unicellular –Show both plant-like and animal-like characteristics –Photosynthetic, have chlorophyll –Lack a cell wall and move independently
Algae Phylum Euglenophyta Phylum Euglenophyta –Most species live in fresh water –Some species live in moist soil –Some live in the digestive tract of certain animals, and do not have chloroplasts so they become heterotrophs –Uses a contractile vacuole to balance fluids –The beloved Euglena is a member of this group
Fungus-like Slime Molds Slime molds are divided into two phyla Slime molds are divided into two phyla They are not closely related but have some characteristics in common They are not closely related but have some characteristics in common –Spend part of their life in a mobile amoeba-like form engulfing organic matter –Produce fungus reproductive structures –Found in damp soil, and decomposing organic matter –They glisten and are viscous masses of white, yellow or red globs
Fungus-like Protists Slime Molds Phylum Acrasiomtycota Phylum Acrasiomtycota –Cellular slime molds –Haploid –In times of stress chemical are excreted attracting other members and huddle –Pseudoplasmodium is a colony resembling a slug Phylum Myxomycota Phylum Myxomycota –Plasmoidial slime –Mass of cytoplasm (plasmodium) –decomposer