2Description of Function, Environmental Issues Affected The ESA was created in 1973 to prevent the extinction of endangered animals and plants caused by human development and economic growth. The US Fish and Wildlife Service maintains the list of threatened and endangered species, all of which are protected under the act. The law states that federal agencies cannot authorize, fund, or carry out actions that may harm any of the species on the list or damage their habitat. The species on this list cannon be harmed, wounded or killed. Also, the import, export, or national/international trade of the species on the list is banned.The penalties for violating the ESA vary depending on the severity of the violation and range from fines to jail time. The act has been effective, and 93% of the listed species have had their population sizes increase or remain stable after being listed.The act affects extinction, habitat loss, and species diversity.
3Agency/Group Responsible for Regulation/Enforcement The 93rd US Congress was responsible for creating the act. The act is administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The US Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, or the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating are responsible for enforcing the act.