Presentation on theme: "The War of 1812 The Second War for American Independence."— Presentation transcript:
The War of 1812 The Second War for American Independence
Before the war, there were many problems with trade: A war with Barbary Coast pirates in Tripoli, North Africa won trade freedom in 1805. Britain & France, at war again, seized US ships & cargo between 1805 and 1807. Britain was also taking US sailors & forcing them into their navy…A practice called impressment.
Embargo Act of 1807 stopped all overseas trade… US was now alone and without any trade partners. Embargo hurt US economy badly and was replaced by Non- Intercourse Act in 1809…Trade banned to Britain and France, but other nations allowed. In 1810, US opened trade to France, but not Britain, who had been arming Indians to fight US in west. The USS Chesapeake, attacked by the HMS Leopard in 1807.
Some Congressmen known as War Hawks, led by Henry Clay, talked Pres. Madison into war w/ Britain…Reasons: Revenge for seizing US ships and sailors. Stop the arming of Indians in the western US. Possibility of taking Canada. Could get Florida from Spain, an ally of Britain. Gain new respect in Europe.
War is declared in June of 1812, but many had reasons not to fight: New Englanders did not want war, as they depended on trade & would be attacked first…They called it Mr. Madisons War. Army was small and untrained. Navy was weak…Only 16 ships! British navy blockaded US ports, so there would be no trade.
Key British Victories US blockaded at sea. Canadian invasion by US repelled. Washington, DC attacked and White House burned. Redcoats controlled the capital and the new White House was burned to only a shell.
Key US Victories Lake Erie, led by Admiral Perry. Baltimore/Ft. McHenry, at which Francis Scott Key wrote our national anthem. Horseshoe Bend, led by Andrew Jackson. New Orleans, also led by Jackson, and fought after the war had officially ended. Ft. McHenry and Andrew Jackson
The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in December of 1814 Basically, the conflict ended in a tie. Neither side agreed to do anything the war had been about. No changes with Canada or Florida, but impressment and arming natives ended. Also, the US won respect in Europe for defending itself against Britain a second time. Within 10 years, the Monroe Doctrine warned European powers to stay away from the Americas for good.