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Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL INTERACTION & GROUPS, ORGANIZATIONS, BEAURACRACIES."— Presentation transcript:



3  Characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation  Charles Horton Cooley

4  “They are primary in several senses, but chiefly in that they are fundamental in forming the social nature and ideals of the individual”

5  the result of intimate association is a certain fusion- of individualities in a common whole, so that one’s very self is the common life and purpose of the group  >WE

6  family, playgroup of children, neighborhood or community group of elders  >the “nursery of human nature”

7  As humans, we have an intense need for face-to-face interaction that generates feelings of self- esteem. By offering a sense of belonging and a feeling of being appreciated-and even loved- primary groups are uniquely equipped to meet this basic need.

8  Larger, more anonymous, more formal and more impersonal than PRIMARY GROUPS

9  Secondary groups are based on some interest or activity, and their members are likely to interact on the basis of specific statuses, such as president, manager, worker or student  >examples: college class, factory, political party, a professional association (ASA)

10  Contemporary society could not function without secondary groups as they are part of how we get our education, make a living and spend our money/leisure time

11  Often secondary groups fail to satisfy our needs for intimate association, as a result, secondary groups tend to break down into primary groups

12  group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest

13  an aspect of voluntary associations is that the leaders often grow distant from members and become convinced that only the inner circle can be trusted to make the groups important decisions.

14  Robert Michels coined the term “the iron law of oligarchy” in 1911 to refer to how organizations come to be dominated by a self- perpetuating elite

15  the majority of members of an institution are passive……an inner circle keeps itself in power by passing the leadership positions from one member of this inner group to another  >people can be excluded from leadership because they don’t represent the inner circle’s values-or background



18  Elements of bureaucratic authority:  1. Fixed and official jurisdictional areas ordered by rules  2. Hierarchical Authority derived from legitimacy or force  3. Labor is organized and regulated

19  -Bureaucracy is a modern phenomenon  -Bureaucracy is a product of capitalism

20  McDonaldization  >simple tasks performed efficiently  >time performing tasks in calculated predictable work  >non-human technologies employed to control and reduce workers  >dehumanization leading to high turnover

21  McDonalds jobs prepare workers for workplace  How are customers taught to behave through McDonaldization?  >bringing the customer into the labor process  >internalization of norms and values  >normalization


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