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Chapter 6 Groups and Organizations. Chapter Outline Using the Sociological Imagination Concept of the Group Types of Groups Social Interaction in Groups.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Groups and Organizations. Chapter Outline Using the Sociological Imagination Concept of the Group Types of Groups Social Interaction in Groups."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Groups and Organizations

2 Chapter Outline Using the Sociological Imagination Concept of the Group Types of Groups Social Interaction in Groups Formal Organizations Dynamics of Formal Organizations Formal Organizations in Japan

3 Groups Members of groups: Interact Share culture Consider one another’s behavior Have some common interests and goals

4 Characteristics of Primary and Secondary Groups PrimarySecondary Nature of Relationship Close social interaction Impersonal FunctionEmotional support, socialization Help achieve group goals ExamplesFamily, soldiers, street gang Class, team, law firm

5 Conditions Favoring Primary Groups Small group size. Face to face contact. Continuous contact. Proper social environment.

6 Size of State Bureaucracies

7 Social Network Links a person with a wide variety of individuals and groups. Provide a sense of belonging and social support and help in the job market.

8 Types of Social Interaction Theoretical Perspective Type of Social Interaction FunctionalismConformity Conflict theoryCoercion Symbolic Interactionism Social exchange

9 Social Interaction and Group Life 1. Cooperation 2. Conflict 3. Social exchange 4. Coercion 5. Conformity

10 Cards for Asch’s Experiments

11 Major Characteristics of Bureaucracy A division of labor based on the principle of specialization. A hierarchy of authority. Organizational affairs are based on a system of rules and procedures.

12 Major Characteristics of Bureaucracy Members of the organization maintain written records of their organizational activities. Statuses in the organization, especially managerial ones, are considered full-time jobs.

13 Major Characteristics of Bureaucracy Relationships within the organization are impersonal, devoid of favoritism. Employees of bureaucratic organizations do not own their positions.

14 University Organization Chart

15 Problems with Bureaucracy Dehumanizing social environment Wastefulness. “Peter principle” - Once reaching a level of incompetence members shift their concern to sustaining organization values. Goal displacement Trained incapacity

16 Military Bureaucracy

17 Inter-organizational Relationships Involving the Police

18 Organization and Oligarchy How organizational factors encourage oligarchy: 1. Organizations need a hierarchy of authority to delegate decision making. 2. Advantages held by leaders at the top allow them to consolidate their power. 3. Membership tends to defer to the skills possessed by their leaders.


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