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Genetic Mutations Any change in the DNA base sequence is called a mutation
Why is the Tiger White DNA mRNA protein Mutations are changes in the genetic code Some changes are lethal, and some dont matter at all. (This tiger is white because of a genetic mutation)
Mutations in gamete cells mutation passed on to offspring Mutations in body cells damage to a gene = cell malfunction. New cells will also have malfunction
How do Mutations happen? Mutations: good, bad or neutral- most often neutral Spontaneous Nuclear radiation Ultraviolet light- sunlight Chemicals Mutagen- causes mutations
Decode this sequence mRNA ACU– GGA – CCA -- UUC Protein ____ _____ ____ ____ threonine glycine proline phenylalanine Now change just the last C to a G What do you get? leucine
A change of one base is called a point mutation mRNA ACU– GGA – CCA -- UUC threonine glycine proline phenylalanine Change the last C to a U- what happens? Sometimes point mutations dont matter
Insertions and Deletions are Frameshift mutations mRNA ACU– GGA – CCA -- UUC Take out the first C AUG-- GAC– CAU– UC Meth ASP Hist ??? Called Frame shift mutations
Mutations Point mutations (substitutions)- may or may not be a big deal Frame shift mutations (insertions or deletions)- always a big deal
Example of a point mutation Sickle cell anemia One base change- one amino acid substitution Hemoglobin does not function normally
From DNA to Protein. Bellringer 11/4/10 1.Based on the picture on the board, where does transcription occur? 2.Where does translation occur?
Cancer & Mutations Powerpoint SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. d. Describe the relationships between.
DNA and Protein Synthesis DNA contains the genetic information to make amino acids Amino acids combine to make proteins These proteins determine the physical.
Genetic Mutations Frame-shift and point mutations.
Section 11.1 Summary – pages Replication of DNA Before a cell can divide by mitosis or meiosis, it must first make a copy of its chromosomes.
Chapter 11 DNA, RNA and Proteins Section 11.1 Summary – pages Deoxyribonucleic Acid- type of nucleic acid DNA is the code for manufacturing.
Mutations. What Are Mutations? Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA May occur in somatic cells (arent passed to offspring) May occur in gametes (eggs.
Changes in DNA. Analogy We will be using a sentence as an analogy representing a strand of DNA. Our sentence is: The fat cat ate the wee rat. If.
Station 8 Changes to the Genetic Code Reporting Category 2 Mechanisms of Genetics.
Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: GeneticsGenetics Unit 5: Change Through Time.
DNA & RNA Unit 7 Chapter 12. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA Ribonucleic Acid.
From DNA to proteins BioH Chapter 13. The BIG picture – Gametes to genes.
Mutations: are changes to the genetic information of a cell are changes to the genetic information of a cell are responsible for the huge diversity among.
Mitosis & Cancer: When Making New Cells Goes Terribly Wrong!
Lecture 41 Prof Duncan Shaw. Genetic Variation Already know that genes have different alleles - how do these arise? Process of mutation - an alteration/change.
Question of the Day What is a codon? Where is it found? 2. What is an anticodon? Where is it found?
11.1 Genes are made of DNA. Griffith Experiment Avery Experiment -Destroyed proteins -Mice still died with mix.
Chapter 14 From DNA to Proteins Honors Biology Program Mountain Pointe High School.
CH. 8 IDENTIFYING DNA AS THE GENETIC MATERIAL. CH. 5 & 6 REVIEW ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. What macromolecule group does DNA & RNA belong in?
Control of Expression In Bacteria –Part 1 Why control expression? Operons in bacteria Negative Control Positive Control Inducible Operons Repressible Operons.
Heredity Unit Exam FR. 26. A B a b D d d e E A B a b D d d E e A B a a b b D d d E e Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase.
Mutations: a source of variation. Mutations are the source of variation A mutation is a heritable change in genetic material. A mutation is a heritable.
1.What are chromosomes composed of? 2.Where do we find chromosomes? Objectives: –Discuss sex-linked traits 5-17.
Central Dogma Protein Synthesis. Two types of nucleic acids # of strands kind of sugar bases used.
Human Heredity and Single Gene Disorders. Autosomal? These types of gene disorders are only found in chromosome pairs 1-22.
Mutatio ns. Variations which do not resemble either parent and have not occurred in family history. Do not have any known cause. Not necessarily harmful.
Aim: How does a chromosome code for a specific protein ? HW read pages Answer ques. #1-5 section 12-3 pg 306.
Chapter 10. Objectives Compare the structure of DNA and RNA Summarize the process of transcription Outline the major steps of translation SCS:B-4.4.
FROM GENE TO PROTEIN. YOU MUST KNOW… THE KEY TERMS GENE EXPRESSION, TRANSCRIPTION, AND TRANSLATION HOW TO EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION HOW EUKARYOTIC.
Dont let this happen to you!!. HOOK EM HORNS!!!
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