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Chordata: Urochordata and Cephalochordata Joycelin Luc Michelle Chen

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Presentation on theme: "Chordata: Urochordata and Cephalochordata Joycelin Luc Michelle Chen"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chordata: Urochordata and Cephalochordata Joycelin Luc Michelle Chen

2 Intro to Chordata Have a notochord Have a notochord Have a dorsal nerve cord => develops into central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) Have a dorsal nerve cord => develops into central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) Most have pharyngeal clefts and pharyngeal slits Most have pharyngeal clefts and pharyngeal slits Usually have a post-anal tail Usually have a post-anal tail Michelle Chen

3 Common Names Urochordata Tunicate Tunicate sea squirts sea squirts sea pork sea porkCephalochordata Lancelets Lancelets amphioxus (means both ends pointed) amphioxus (means both ends pointed) Joycelin Luc (left pic) (right pic)

4 Urochordata Michelle Chen

5 Cephalochordata Michelle Chen

6 Body Cavity and Body symmetry Coelom present in both the Urochordata and Cephalochordata subphlya Coelom present in both the Urochordata and Cephalochordata subphlya bilaterian (bilaterally symmetrical) bilaterian (bilaterally symmetrical) Body consists of myoepithelial and Epithelial cells Body consists of myoepithelial and Epithelial cells Michelle Chen

7 Nervous System & Sensory Features Present consisting of brain and spinal cord Present consisting of brain and spinal cord in Urochordata, nervous system disintegrates when it reaches adult stage in Urochordata, nervous system disintegrates when it reaches adult stage Michelle Chen

8 Circulatory System Urochordata Blood contains high concentration of vandium and lithium Blood contains high concentration of vandium and lithium Open circulatory system Open circulatory system Ventral heart Ventral heartCephalochordata Closed blood system Closed blood system Main ventral and paired dorsal aorta Main ventral and paired dorsal aorta No central heart, but consists of branches No central heart, but consists of branches lacks hemoglobin and is colorless lacks hemoglobin and is colorless Has Atria cavity Has Atria cavity Joycelin Luc

9 Digestive & Excretory System Urochordata Draws food through siphon into atrium from pharyngeal slits Draws food through siphon into atrium from pharyngeal slits Food filtered by mucous net Food filtered by mucous net Moves to esophagus through cilia Moves to esophagus through cilia Exits excurrent siphon Exits excurrent siphonCephalochordata Uses cilia pumping to move food particles from slit Uses cilia pumping to move food particles from slit Trap food in pharynx Trap food in pharynx Michelle Chen

10 Locomotion/ Musculature Urochordata Juvenile: tail muscles; gravity and light sensitive cells Juvenile: tail muscles; gravity and light sensitive cells Adult: attach to a substrate Adult: attach to a substrate sessile sessile Cephalochordata Contraction of muscles arranged in a a side to side undulation to move forward Contraction of muscles arranged in a a side to side undulation to move forward Somites Somites Michelle Chen Urochordata Juvenile: tail muscles; gravity and light sensitive cells Juvenile: tail muscles; gravity and light sensitive cells Adult: attach to a substrate Adult: attach to a substrate sessile sessile

11 Skeletal Type Joycelin Luc Urochordata Notochord (some have spicule when young) Notochord (some have spicule when young) adult: attach to rock adult: attach to rock Cephalochordata Develops dorsal, hollow never cord Develops dorsal, hollow never cord Post-anal tail Post-anal tail

12 Reproduction Urochordata Hermaphrodites Hermaphrodites Eggs kept inside until hatch Eggs kept inside until hatch Sperm released into H2O Sperm released into H2OCephalochordata Gonochoristic: sex separate Gonochoristic: sex separate Sperm and eggs released into water Sperm and eggs released into water Fertilization is external Fertilization is external Joycelin Luc

13 Gas Exchange Uses cilia to regulate the gases Uses cilia to regulate the gases Pharynx and pharyngeal slits regulate the gas exchange (across external body surface) Pharynx and pharyngeal slits regulate the gas exchange (across external body surface) Michelle Chen

14 Other unique features Urochordata = very few natural predators Urochordata = very few natural predators Invasive species Invasive species Form colonies Form colonies Joycelin Luc

15 Quiz 1. What are the four basic features that separate Chordata from other phyla? 2. Name one difference between Urochordata and Cephalochordata. 3. How do adult sea squirts move? What about adult lancelets? 4. How are the reproductive methods for Urochordata and Cephalochordata different? Joycelin Luc

16 THE END!!!


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