Presentation on theme: "By: John Lee, Jon Fuller, and Vicky Hung"— Presentation transcript:
1 By: John Lee, Jon Fuller, and Vicky Hung NematodaBy: John Lee, Jon Fuller, and Vicky Hung
2 Phylum & Sample Animals Phylum: NematodaClasses: Adenophorea, SecernenteaSample Animals:Caernorhabditis ElegansInvolves in aging in humanIt’s a model organism for researchTrichinella SpiralisAcquired by ingesting infected porkDevelop along the intestinal musclesInvades muscle cells and control it.
3 Body CavityPseudocoelom: It has a body cavity only partially lined by tissue derived from mesoderm.
4 Body Symmetry Radial Symmetry. Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images.They have no head or read end, no left and right side.
5 Nervous SystemNematodes have a simple nervous system, with a main ventral nerve cord and a smaller dorsal nerve cord.
6 Circulatory SystemThere is no circulatory system
7 Digestive SystemNematodes have a digestive system which includes separate sites for food intake.The system is divided into three parts: stomodeum, intestine, and proctodeum.The stomodeum consists of the esophagus, the “mouth” and “lips”, and buccal cavity.
8 Excretory System Simple and tubular with no cilia/flagella. Consists of one or two single celled glands called renette cellsFunctions: (1) excretion of metabolic waste, (2) Osmoregulation, (3) secretion and export of hormones to target tissues,
9 Locomotion/musculature Movement due to longitudinal muscles that when contracted produced a thrashing motion.
10 Skeletal Type Nematodes have a hydrostatic skeleton. The pressure from the pseudocoelom and the muscles change an organism’s shape and produce movement.
11 Sensory Structure Nematodes have amphids, and phasmids. Amphids are on the anterior.Phasmids are on the posterior end.
12 Reproductive system Reproduction is usually sexual. Involves internal fertilization.Female may deposit 100,000 or more fertilized eggs per day.Zygotes are resistant cells and can survive harsh conditions.Females are larger than males
13 Gas Exchange Gas exchange occurs through diffusion. Some parasitic nematodes have a form of hemoglobin in the body fluids.Anaerobic and Aerobic metabolism is also common.
14 Unique FeaturesTrichinella (a type of nematode) has been dubbed “animals that act as viruses” because they invade muscle cells and control genes which code for proteins which make cellselastic enough to house nematodes.The Cuticle which is a hard exterior that the worm sheds and excretes as it grows.BlastulaResulting from the folding of the mesoderm.Protosome
15 QuestionsHow do the nematoda use there musculature for motion differently from the others?What is the skeletal system called? What does this mean?Why are some nematodes called “animals that act like viruses”?Which type of symmetry do nematodes exhibit? How can you tell?
16 AnswersNematoda have longitudinal muscles that they contract rapidly and create a thrashing motion.They have hydrostatic skeletal systems that react to the environment and the pressure that is exerted upon themSome have learned to control the muscles of humans in order to receive the nutrients they need to survive.The nematodes have radial symmetry that can be proven by the fact that they can be cut anyway through the central axis to create mirror images.