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Human Classification Animal Kingdom Cordate Phylum Mammal Class Primate Order Hominoid Family Homo Genus sapiens speices
Primate Order characteristics: Better sight than smell 3-D Sight Limbs for climbing Manipulate tools Relatively large brains
Characteristics of Hominid Family: Bipedal Smaller Canine Teeth Ground Dwellers
In 1978 in Laetoli, Kenya, a research team led by British paleoanthropologist Mary Leakey discovered these 3.6-million-year- old human footprints preserved in a layer of hardened volcanic ash. Two early humans of the species Australopithecus afarensis left the footprints as they walked across the African savanna. John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Footprints From the Past," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Great Apes= Gorillas, Chimpanzees & Orangutans (Family Pongidae?)
About 98% of the genes of chimpanzees & humans are the same, making them our closest relatives of the primates
Homo erectus, Australopithecus,& Human
Walking upright: Bipedalism
Unlike their ape ancestors, early humans had anatomical adaptations for upright walking. The early human species Australopithecus afarensis had a wide and short pelvis and femurs (upper leg bones) that angled inward toward the knees. These adaptations provided side-to-side balance and a fulcrum for the hip muscles to hold the torso erect. In contrast, apes, such as chimpanzees, have a tall and narrow pelvis from which the femurs extend straight down. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. "Evolution of Upright Walking," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Why did humans evolve? Bipedal & larger brain advantages: Change climate? Patchy forests? Need to hunt & run? Tool usage?
Scientists do not all agree about the appropriate classification of hominoids. They group the living hominoids into either two or three families: Hylobatidae, Hominidae, and sometimes Pongidae. Hylobatidae consists of the small or so-called lesser apes of Southeast Asia, commonly known as gibbons and siamangs. The Hominidae (hominids) include humans and, according to some scientists, the great apes. For those who include only humans among the Hominidae, all of the great apes, including the orangutans of Southeast Asia, belong to the family Pongidae. In the past only humans were considered to belong to the family Hominidae, and the term hominid referred only to species of humans. Today, however, genetic studies support placing all of the great apes and humans together in this family and the placing of African apeschimpanzees and gorillastogether with humans at an even lower level, or subfamily. According to this reasoning, the evolutionary branch of Asian apes leading to orangutans, which separated from the other hominid branches by about 13 million years ago, belongs to the subfamily Ponginae. The ancestral and living representatives of the African ape and human branches together belong to the subfamily Homininae (hominines). Lastly, the line of early and modern humans belongs to the tribe (classificatory level above genus) Hominini, or hominins. This order of classification corresponds with the genetic relationships among ape and human species. It groups humans and the African apes together at the same level in which scientists group together, for example, all types of foxes, all buffalo, or all flying squirrels. Within each of these groups, the species are very closely related. However, in the classification of apes and humans the similarities among the names hominoid, hominid, hominine, and hominin can be confusing. In this article the term early human refers to all species of the human family tree since the divergence from a common ancestor with the African apes. Popular writing often still uses the term hominid to mean the same thing. "Human Evolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Did Man evolve from Apes? No!! Similar ancestor Both: Animalia Cordata Mammalia Primates ?Hominoids Different Genus & Species
When Charles Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871, he challenged the fundamental beliefs of most people by asserting that humans and apes had evolved from a common ancestor. Many critics of Darwin misunderstood his theory to mean that people had descended directly from apes. This caricature of Charles Darwin as an ape appeared in the London Sketch Book in Mary Evans Picture Library/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Caricature of Charles Darwin," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Mammals arise from Theraapsids
Lemurs: distant relatives
The ruffed lemur lives in the eastern rain forests of Madagascar. The lemurs and their relatives are believed to have evolved in isolation from the monkeys and apes after Africa became separated from Madagascar over 50 million years ago. Since the arrival of humans on Madagascar over 2000 years ago, at least 14 species of lemurs are believed to have become extinct. Jean P. Varin/Jacana/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Ruffed Lemur," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
The Piltdown Man was accepted as an important archaeological find in 1912 because it seemed to bridge the evolutionary gap between apes and man. It was not until 1953 that, with the help of fluorine dating tests, the bones were determined to be the jaw of an orangutan with the skull of a man, both from the Middle Ages. Here, Alvan Marston explains that it is not a missing evolutionary link, but a most elaborate hoax. Hulton Deutsch "Uncovering the Piltdown Hoax," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Scientific Classification Systems Why a Scientific Classification System? Ambiguity of terms Latin dead language Categorization of relationships: 1.
Chapter 34 Review Humans Charles Page High School Dr. Stephen L. Cotton.
Paleoanthropology -The study of human origins and evolution -Paleoanthropologists use two terms that are easily confused: Hominoid: refers to the group.
12.6 Primate Evolution KEY CONCEPT Humans appeared late in Earth’s history.
Human Origins. Common argument against human evolution… If we evolved from chimpanzees, how are there still chimpanzees!?
Hominid Evolution: On The Origin of Humans.. Questions to answer: What is a human? What is a hominid? What were early humans (hominids) like? How long.
Human Evolution How did we get here?. Controversy 1871 Darwin published a second book “The Descent of Man” Argued humans are related to African Apes (gorilla.
Quick Write p 102: What are hominids and how do they relate to humans? ¿Cuáles son los homínidos y cómo se relacionan con los seres humanos?
Human Evolution Biology Notes Primates Ancient mammal ancestors of prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans –Grasping hands and feet –Forward eye.
Evolution of Primates Chapter 6, Section 3. Primates Group of mammals including humans, monkeys, and apes.
C HAPTER 6 Section 3. P RIMATES What type of species belong to group Primates? Humans, monkeys, and apes All are mammals What characteristics do all Primates.
Primates Humans, monkeys, and apes belong to the group of mammals known as the primates. All primates have opposable thumbs, binocular vision, and flexible.
Ch Evolution. Unit 4 – Evolution (Ch. 14, 15, 16) 1.Define Evolution 2.List the major events that led to Charles Darwin’s development of his theory.
Hominid Evolution. Monkeys Hominins are organisms that is more closely related to a human than a chimpanzee – Chimps are our closest relative of the primates.
Johnson - The Living World: 3rd Ed. - All Rights Reserved - McGraw Hill Companies How Human Evolved Chapter 21 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission.
Human Evolution. Did we evolve from apes? Humans DID NOT evolve from apes we have a common ancestor.
Kingdom Animal Phylum Chordate Class Mammal Order Primates Family Hominids Genus Homo Species Sapiens.
12.6 Primate Evolution How did modern humans evolve?
Hominin Evolution - Hominids and Hominins Aims: Must be able to outline the characteristics of Hominids, Apes and Hominins. Should be able to state the.
Humans Have a Relatively Short History. Fossil Records Indicate that modern humans have a relatively recent history Began in Africa In a short time, humans.
26.3 Human Evolution. Classification 26.3 Homo sapiens sapiens Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo.
HOMINID EVOLUTION Phylogenetic tree to show the place of the family Hominidae in the animal kingdom.
Common ancestor. Contemporary animals Hominid Evolution: On The Origin of Humans.
Humans as Primates. Objectives Describe primates and their evolution. Describe the major anatomical features that define humans as primates. Outline the.
Human Evolution Part I - Primates. “To understand the story of evolution, we must understand both our ancestors and our relationships to our closest living.
Human Evolution GO BACK. WE MESSED UP EVERYTHING!.
Primate Adaptation & Evolution Ch. 16, Sec. 1 For today, 5/30: 1. Turn in HW 2. Short lecture, posted online 3. Opposable Thumb Lab.
Human Evolution 12.6 Laetoli Footprints Laetoli footprints clearly show that the creatures who made them were fully bipedal Big toe hardly diverges from.
Human Evolution. Mammal Characteristics Produce milk for young Hair Differentiated teeth Embryos develop inside and gain nutrients from the mother (placentals)
Human Evolution. Primates The order Primates includes humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians. Some taxonomic splitters classify up to 350 species, while.
Primate and Human evolution Chapter 16. I. Primate Origins A. Primate –a group of mammals that includes lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans. B. Primates.
Human Evolution chapter 17 practice test answers – True/False ____1. Humans and their closest fossil relatives are known as hominids. ____2. Chimpanzees.
A. Primates 1. Humans, monkeys, and apes belong to the group of mammals known as the primates. 2. All primates have opposable thumbs, binocular vision,
PRIMATE EVOLUTION Take out a sheet of paper and put your name and your lab partners name on it. Question 1 – How would you and your lab partner scientifically.
C 16- Primate Evolution Pp Content 16-1 Primate Adaptation & Evolution 16-2 Human AncestryHuman Ancestry.
PRIMATE EVOLUTION Chapter 16. Primate Adaptation & Evolution Ch. 16, Sec. 1.
Ch 12: The History of Life. The geologic time scale divides Earth’s history based on major past events.
Chapter 43 Mammals Section 4 Primates & Human Origins.
Primate Evolution KEY CONCEPT Humans appeared late in Earths history.
Ch. 16 Primate Evolution Unit 4. I. Characteristics of Primates A. Primate = a mammal; animal that produces milk for offspring – a placental mammal A.
Human Evolution Ch 17.6 “wolf book”. Human evolution is NOT controversial amongst most scientists BUT disagreements on: how many species. Interpretations.
Beginning of Life Composition of early atmosphere Methane, ammonia, hydrogen; no oxygen; no life Miller/Urey Experiment Sent electrical sparks through.
PRIMATE EVOLUTION DC Biology Bill Palmer. Primate Adaptation and Evolution PRIMATE-Group of mammals that includes lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans Characteristics.
Probably first appeared about 200,000 years ago. Paleoanthropologists study human evolution. There is sparse evidence relating to the evolution.
Chapter 32-3 Primates and Human Origins. Carolus Linnaeus named our order Primates, which means __ In Latin? What is a Primate? All Primates have: All.
Human Evolution Part II. Ardi – Our very early ancestor The fossil skeleton of a species, discovered in Ethipoia in 1994, called Ardipithecus ramidus.
EVOLUTION Evolution (material for extra credit questions)
Human Evolution. Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species K- Animal P – Chordata C – Mammalian O – Primates.
Humans emerged on one very young twig on the vertebrate branch. Humans and chimps diverged from a common ancestor 5- 7 million years ago. Q: Are our ancestors.
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