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Human Classification Animal Kingdom Cordate Phylum Mammal Class Primate Order Hominoid Family Homo Genus sapiens speices
Primate Order characteristics: Better sight than smell 3-D Sight Limbs for climbing Manipulate tools Relatively large brains
Characteristics of Hominid Family: Bipedal Smaller Canine Teeth Ground Dwellers
In 1978 in Laetoli, Kenya, a research team led by British paleoanthropologist Mary Leakey discovered these 3.6-million-year- old human footprints preserved in a layer of hardened volcanic ash. Two early humans of the species Australopithecus afarensis left the footprints as they walked across the African savanna. John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Footprints From the Past," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Great Apes= Gorillas, Chimpanzees & Orangutans (Family Pongidae?)
About 98% of the genes of chimpanzees & humans are the same, making them our closest relatives of the primates
Homo erectus, Australopithecus,& Human
Walking upright: Bipedalism
Unlike their ape ancestors, early humans had anatomical adaptations for upright walking. The early human species Australopithecus afarensis had a wide and short pelvis and femurs (upper leg bones) that angled inward toward the knees. These adaptations provided side-to-side balance and a fulcrum for the hip muscles to hold the torso erect. In contrast, apes, such as chimpanzees, have a tall and narrow pelvis from which the femurs extend straight down. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. "Evolution of Upright Walking," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Why did humans evolve? Bipedal & larger brain advantages: Change climate? Patchy forests? Need to hunt & run? Tool usage?
Scientists do not all agree about the appropriate classification of hominoids. They group the living hominoids into either two or three families: Hylobatidae, Hominidae, and sometimes Pongidae. Hylobatidae consists of the small or so-called lesser apes of Southeast Asia, commonly known as gibbons and siamangs. The Hominidae (hominids) include humans and, according to some scientists, the great apes. For those who include only humans among the Hominidae, all of the great apes, including the orangutans of Southeast Asia, belong to the family Pongidae. In the past only humans were considered to belong to the family Hominidae, and the term hominid referred only to species of humans. Today, however, genetic studies support placing all of the great apes and humans together in this family and the placing of African apeschimpanzees and gorillastogether with humans at an even lower level, or subfamily. According to this reasoning, the evolutionary branch of Asian apes leading to orangutans, which separated from the other hominid branches by about 13 million years ago, belongs to the subfamily Ponginae. The ancestral and living representatives of the African ape and human branches together belong to the subfamily Homininae (hominines). Lastly, the line of early and modern humans belongs to the tribe (classificatory level above genus) Hominini, or hominins. This order of classification corresponds with the genetic relationships among ape and human species. It groups humans and the African apes together at the same level in which scientists group together, for example, all types of foxes, all buffalo, or all flying squirrels. Within each of these groups, the species are very closely related. However, in the classification of apes and humans the similarities among the names hominoid, hominid, hominine, and hominin can be confusing. In this article the term early human refers to all species of the human family tree since the divergence from a common ancestor with the African apes. Popular writing often still uses the term hominid to mean the same thing. "Human Evolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Did Man evolve from Apes? No!! Similar ancestor Both: Animalia Cordata Mammalia Primates ?Hominoids Different Genus & Species
When Charles Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871, he challenged the fundamental beliefs of most people by asserting that humans and apes had evolved from a common ancestor. Many critics of Darwin misunderstood his theory to mean that people had descended directly from apes. This caricature of Charles Darwin as an ape appeared in the London Sketch Book in Mary Evans Picture Library/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Caricature of Charles Darwin," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Mammals arise from Theraapsids
Lemurs: distant relatives
The ruffed lemur lives in the eastern rain forests of Madagascar. The lemurs and their relatives are believed to have evolved in isolation from the monkeys and apes after Africa became separated from Madagascar over 50 million years ago. Since the arrival of humans on Madagascar over 2000 years ago, at least 14 species of lemurs are believed to have become extinct. Jean P. Varin/Jacana/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Ruffed Lemur," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
The Piltdown Man was accepted as an important archaeological find in 1912 because it seemed to bridge the evolutionary gap between apes and man. It was not until 1953 that, with the help of fluorine dating tests, the bones were determined to be the jaw of an orangutan with the skull of a man, both from the Middle Ages. Here, Alvan Marston explains that it is not a missing evolutionary link, but a most elaborate hoax. Hulton Deutsch "Uncovering the Piltdown Hoax," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Scientific Classification Systems Why a Scientific Classification System? Ambiguity of terms Latin dead language Categorization of relationships: 1.
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 16 Primate Evolution Section 1: Primates Section 2: Hominoids to Hominins Section 3: Human Ancestry.
From Them to Us… Why evolution does not mean we came from MONKEYS…
PRIMATES AND HUMAN ORIGINS Chapter 32 Section 3. What Is a Primate? They have: binocular vision a well-developed cerebrum relatively long fingers and.
Evolution of Primates Chapter 6, Section 3. Primates Group of mammals including humans, monkeys, and apes.
Ch 12: The History of Life. Specific environmental conditions are necessary in order for fossils to form The Fossil Record.
SC.912.L.15.1 EVOLUTION. The theory of evolution is supported by evidence from the fossil record comparative anatomy comparative embryology biogeography.
Topics A history of apemen – the track record Two case studies 1. Neandertals 2. Australopithecines and Lucy How evolution hinders critical thinking Mechanism.
Scientific Method Step 1: Observation is made Step 2: Hypothesize Step 3: Set up falsifiable experiments to become theory Step 4: Set up more experiments.
Classification of Organisms Students should be able to: * Understand why a classification system is important * Understand that there are a variety of.
Primate Evolution KEY CONCEPT Humans appeared late in Earths history.
BIOLOGY Option D. Topic Outline Origin of Life on Earth Origin of Species Evidence for Evolution Human Evolution Neo-Darwinism The Hardy-Weinberg Principle.
By Maiya LeBron and Mia Inchaurregui Mia Inchaurregui.
Evolution: Whats all the fuss about? Terms and Ideas you need to know.
Page21 Early Human Species Notes Page20 Warm Up: Prepare for Notebook Check Take 5 minutes and compare your notebook with a partner. Do you have?: -page.
Physical Anthropology Eighth Edition Philip L. Stein Bruce M. Rowe McGraw-Hill © 2003, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Eight.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama 1 What Does Science Say About Creation? - Part 3 - Dr. Heinz Lycklama
Ch. 5 Evolution APES Mrs. Sealy. I. Origins of Life How do we know? Chemical analysis: chemists have conducted lab experiments to show how simple organic.
© Alan Richardson. The theory of evolution offers an explanation for the existence of all living organisms on the Earth today and in the past It supposes.
Living Things What Is Life? Classifying Organisms Domains and Kingdoms The Origin of Life Table of Contents.
Chapter 18 Classification. Chapter 18 Mystery Page 509… GRIN AND BEAR IT Hypothesis: Are polar bears and brown bears separate species?
EVOLUTION ZOOLOGY Chapter 4. Charles Darwin
The Creation/Evolution Debate. Topics What is critical thinking? 10 logical fallacies An amazing case study in deception Amazing creatures What is critical.
1 Chapter 18: Classification. 2 18–1 Finding Order in Diversity Life on Earth has been changing for more than 3.5 billion years Life on Earth has been.
The. of and a to in is you that it he for.
Evolution Review. History of the Earth Darwins Theory of Natural Selection Evidence of Evolution Shaping Evolutionary Theory Miscellaneous
What Do The Earth Sciences Say About Creation? Dr. Heinz Lycklama Frog + time (instantaneous) -> Prince = Fairy Tale Frog +
Charles Darwin ( ) Sailed around the world
Race, Language and Culture My role is to introduce the biological aspect of the course. So, I will discuss: What is the nature of human races? Are there.
Biological and cultural evolution of the hominins Year 13 Biology Achievement Standard 3.7.
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