2 What is ATP? ATP = Adenosine TriPhosphate Adenine + Ribose + 3 PhosphatesPhosphateAdenineRiboseTriphosphateADENOSINE
3 Why ATP?Phosphates have a large amount of chemical energy. Whenever a bond holding a phosphate is broken, a large amount of usable cellular energy is released.PPPADENOSINEENERGYPPPADENOSINE
4 ATP CYCLE + Occurs continuously in cells About 10 million new ATP molecules are made in every cell every second!!!2. Releasing Energy Energy released by breaking bonds – used to power cellsStored Energy Energy stored in chemical bonds.4. Making ATPEnergy released by other chemical reactions and processes can be used to bond a phosphate to ADP to make ATP3. Energy Depleted ADP has less chemical energy than ATPADP+P
5 PHOTOSYNTHESISSeries of complex chemical processes that convert light energy into carbohydratesOverall Equation light + H2O + CO2 C6H12O6 + O2Occurs in ChloroplastsTwo types of reactions – Light Dependent Light Independent (aka. Calvin Cycle, Dark rxn)
6 Photosynthesis Overview Fill in the picture on the top left of notes as animation plays
7 FOCUS On . . Light dependent reaction Occurs in thylakoid membrane Photolysis of H2O Light + 2H2O 4H+ + O2Make NADPH & ATP
8 FOCUS On . . Light Independent Reaction – CALVIN CYCLE Occurs in Stroma of ChloroplastUse of CO2 to create Glucose (C6H12O6)Use of ATP & NADPH from Light reactionsATP for energy to power chemical reactionsNADPH – hydrogen source to add to CO2 to make sugarsMust cycle through 6 times in order to create one glucose molecule
9 Falcon Five 10/20 – Test your photosynthetic knowledge: The Calvin Cycle includes a. Light dependent rxns b. electron transport chain c. light independent rxnsThe Calvin Cycle takes place in the a. mitochondria b. stroma c. nucleus d. thylakoid membraneWhat product of the light dependent rxn is used in the Calvin Cycle a. oxygen b. carbon dioxide c. NADPH d. chlorophyllWhat is used in the first step of the Calvin Cycle a. oxygen b. carbon dioxide c. hydrogen d. waterHow many rounds of the Calvin Cycle are needed to form one glucose molecule? a. one b. six c. two d. threeDescribe the two energy storing steps of photosynthesis.
10 Cellular RespirationWhere does the Glucose (C6H12O6) & O2 from photosynthesis go?Used by both plant & animal cells to create ATP!!!Releases energyMakes cell energyClose to the reverse of photosynthesis !Cellular Respiration EquationO2 + C6H12O6 → CO2 + H2O + ATP
11 Cellular Respiration 3 step process Glycolysis Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid CycleElectron Transport Chain
12 Step 1: GLYCOLYSIS 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2 - Pyruvate 2 - PGAL2 NAD2 NADHOccurs in Cytoplasm of cellAnaerobic process (no O2 required)Net production of 2 ATP (make 4 but use 2)Releases only 2% of chemical energy that is stored in Glucose
13 Step 2: Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle Occurs in Mitochondria MatrixRequires presence of O22 Pyruvate from Glycolysis transformed into Acetyl CoA & enters cycleNet production of:2 ATP2 FADH6 NADH
14 Step 3 – Electron Transport Chain Remaining energy of glucose in electrons carried by NADH & FADHNADH & FADH enter electron transport chain in mitochondria cristaeProduce 32 more ATPFrom Alteration of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoAFrom Krebs Cycle
15 Summary of Cellular Respiration CO2In CristaeIn MatrixH2O3222
16 What if there is not enough or no O2 present? Alcoholic Fermentation (Yeast)Pyruvate + NADH → Ethanol + NAD + CO2Used in baking, beer & wine productionLactic Acid FermentationPyruvate + NADH → Lactic Acid + NADStrenuous exercise = can’t get all the O2 your cells need so use lactic acid fermentation = Sore muscles!!!