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Presentation on theme: "PHOTOSYNTHESIS & RESPIRATION"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is ATP? ATP = Adenosine TriPhosphate
Adenine + Ribose + 3 Phosphates Phosphate Adenine Ribose Triphosphate ADENOSINE

3 Why ATP? Phosphates have a large amount of chemical energy. Whenever a bond holding a phosphate is broken, a large amount of usable cellular energy is released. P P P ADENOSINE ENERGY P P P ADENOSINE

4 ATP CYCLE + Occurs continuously in cells
About 10 million new ATP molecules are made in every cell every second!!! 2. Releasing Energy Energy released by breaking bonds – used to power cells Stored Energy Energy stored in chemical bonds. 4. Making ATP Energy released by other chemical reactions and processes can be used to bond a phosphate to ADP to make ATP 3. Energy Depleted ADP has less chemical energy than ATP ADP + P

5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Series of complex chemical processes that convert light energy into carbohydrates Overall Equation light + H2O + CO2 C6H12O6 + O2 Occurs in Chloroplasts Two types of reactions – Light Dependent Light Independent (aka. Calvin Cycle, Dark rxn)

6 Photosynthesis Overview
Fill in the picture on the top left of notes as animation plays

7 FOCUS On . . Light dependent reaction Occurs in thylakoid membrane
Photolysis of H2O Light + 2H2O 4H+ + O2 Make NADPH & ATP

8 FOCUS On . . Light Independent Reaction – CALVIN CYCLE
Occurs in Stroma of Chloroplast Use of CO2 to create Glucose (C6H12O6) Use of ATP & NADPH from Light reactions ATP for energy to power chemical reactions NADPH – hydrogen source to add to CO2 to make sugars Must cycle through 6 times in order to create one glucose molecule

9 Falcon Five 10/20 – Test your photosynthetic knowledge:
The Calvin Cycle includes a. Light dependent rxns b. electron transport chain c. light independent rxns The Calvin Cycle takes place in the a. mitochondria b. stroma c. nucleus d. thylakoid membrane What product of the light dependent rxn is used in the Calvin Cycle a. oxygen b. carbon dioxide c. NADPH d. chlorophyll What is used in the first step of the Calvin Cycle a. oxygen b. carbon dioxide c. hydrogen d. water How many rounds of the Calvin Cycle are needed to form one glucose molecule? a. one b. six c. two d. three Describe the two energy storing steps of photosynthesis.

10 Cellular Respiration Where does the Glucose (C6H12O6) & O2 from photosynthesis go? Used by both plant & animal cells to create ATP!!! Releases energy Makes cell energy Close to the reverse of photosynthesis ! Cellular Respiration Equation O2 + C6H12O6 → CO2 + H2O + ATP

11 Cellular Respiration 3 step process Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain

12 Step 1: GLYCOLYSIS 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP Glucose 2 - Pyruvate
2 - PGAL 2 NAD 2 NADH Occurs in Cytoplasm of cell Anaerobic process (no O2 required) Net production of 2 ATP (make 4 but use 2) Releases only 2% of chemical energy that is stored in Glucose

13 Step 2: Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle
Occurs in Mitochondria Matrix Requires presence of O2 2 Pyruvate from Glycolysis transformed into Acetyl CoA & enters cycle Net production of: 2 ATP 2 FADH 6 NADH

14 Step 3 – Electron Transport Chain
Remaining energy of glucose in electrons carried by NADH & FADH NADH & FADH enter electron transport chain in mitochondria cristae Produce 32 more ATP From Alteration of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA From Krebs Cycle

15 Summary of Cellular Respiration
CO2 In Cristae In Matrix H2O 32 2 2

16 What if there is not enough or no O2 present?
Alcoholic Fermentation (Yeast) Pyruvate + NADH → Ethanol + NAD + CO2 Used in baking, beer & wine production Lactic Acid Fermentation Pyruvate + NADH → Lactic Acid + NAD Strenuous exercise = can’t get all the O2 your cells need so use lactic acid fermentation = Sore muscles!!!


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