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Technology and Academic Integrity A Guide for Teachers By J. Speed Farris.

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1 Technology and Academic Integrity A Guide for Teachers By J. Speed Farris

2 Originality is the art of concealing your sources. Benjamin Franklin

3 A Perspective on Cheating To some students, cheating is not about values at all; it's about power. Some people, they argue, have the advantage of well-connected families; some are naturally bright; others get ahead through cheating. In these students' minds, all means are morally equivalent, according to Gary Pavela, author of Code of Academic Honesty, which has been adopted by several universities. For these young people, Pavela observes, "Concepts like 'morality,' 'virtue,' and 'truth' have no meaning except to disguise and facilitate the use of power by those who have it, or seek it."

4 What is Cheating? 1. Cheating intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids in any academic exercise. The term academic exercise includes all forms of work submitted for credit or hours. Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.

5 What is Cheating? 2. Fabrication intentional and unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise. 3. Plagiarism deliberate adoption or reproduction of ideas or words or statements of another person as ones own without acknowledgement. Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.

6 What is Cheating? 4. Facilitating academic dishonesty intentionally or knowingly helping or attempting to help another (to cheat). Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.

7 What is Cheating? In their book, Academic DishonestyAn Educators Guide, Whitley and Keith-Spiegel add three more categories: 5. Misrepresentation Consists of providing false information to an instructor concerning an academic exercise. 6. Failure to contribute to a collaborative project Involves not doing ones fair share. 7. Sabotage Consists of actions that prevent others from completing their work. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.

8 How big of a problem is it? The research indicates that almost everyone has cheated at one time or another, and some surveys reveal more than 90% of students polled admitted to cheating. Cheating seems to peak in high school, and slowly declines in post-secondary education. However, it is ubiquitous at all levels. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.

9 Needs Assessment and Initial Assumptions A certain number of students, in almost any learning environment, are going to cheat. Recent technology provides easier and more effective methods of cheating. Teachers generally do not have the time or inclination to research dishonest applications of technology. As a result, they often are unprepared to detect or prevent it in their classrooms.

10 Academic Dishonesty Types of Cheating Old Fashioned methods Cheat Sheets, etc. Using Technology Cell Phones, Internet, etc. Detection and Prevention Student Education

11 Academic Dishonesty Old-Fashioned Methods: Copying from other students, using cheat sheets, paraphrasing / plagiarizing from books, looking in the garbage for carbon copies of tests…

12 Cheat Sheets Hand Written Cheat Sheets: Relatively small amount of available information Relatively small amount of available information Often Illegible Often Illegible Difficult to conceal Difficult to conceal

13 Hiding Cheat Sheets A students clothing can provide numerous hiding places.

14 Some Indications of Cheating: Books / notes on floor, electronics, covered eyes, roving eyes, eye contact, postures of concealment.

15 Basic Remediation Suggestion #1 Establish your presence during testing periods. Clearly state your expectations (No talking, no notes, no electronics, etc.) and your consequences (Grade of zero) prior to the test. Move around the classroom; never stay in the same place for long. Walk up and down the aisles looking for open notes on the floor. Stand at the back of the room periodically. Be alert for students with awkward postures, furtive movements, or repeated eye-contact with the teacher.

16 Academic Dishonesty Technology-Based Methods: High resolution cheat sheets, USB data theft, cell / camera phones, iPods, Internet cheat sites…

17 Cheat Sheets and Technology

18 High resolution printers can provide a significant increase in available information. Clear water or soda bottles offer magnification, while opaque sodas hide evidence (cheater takes a slow sip in order to catch a glimpse of the answers).

19 The packaging of ordinary products like gum or breath mints can be modified to serve as a cheat sheet. Templates (at left) can be made with the help of a scanner, photo-editing software, and a high resolution color printer. Cheat Sheets and Technology

20 Basic Remediation Suggestion #2 Dont allow anything other than paper and pencil on student desks during a test. Create different versions of each test. Do Not use the same exam every year.

21 Cellular/Camera Phones Risks: Photography of class materials, silent text messaging during exams, and even web access in some models.

22 Source: Cellular/Camera Phones

23 High School Kids tell how they cheat on exams with their cell phones The New York Post April 23, 2005 High-schoolers openly admitted to The NY Post that they cheated on exams using their cell phones, and that the practice had even reached "epidemic" proportions, with "some phone frauds even selling answers and exam photos, they said. "People take photos of the test, and they e-mail it to other people who have the test later that day," said Ewa Maciukiewicz, 18, a Bronx HS of Science senior.

24 An article on student cheating, published in a school paper by the students of Montgomery Blair High in Silver Spring, Maryland: The article gives first hand stories of students who have cheated during exams, unbeknownst to their clueless teachers. February 24, 2005 – "Teachers' ignorance of text-message cheating makes it even more tempting for students: In an informal Silver Chips poll of 19 teachers from different departments on Jan. 3 and Jan. 4, only two were aware that students use text-messaging to cheat. None have caught any students in the act. Rachel, a student, feels that teachers are too inexperienced with technology to realize students would use it to their advantage. "They're not expecting [cheating] to be that high-tech. When they were in school, they didn't have cell phones. That's never going to cross their mind," she says. Steven, a junior, says that teachers won't catch text-message cheaters since cell phones are so small. "The teachers can't pay attention to it. It looks like a PDA so when it beeps, I just say my PDA went off." Steven says the only way teachers will catch on is if they learn the technology. "They need to get into technology so they can text-message each other," he says. That way, he says, teachers will understand the technology and be better able to detect text-message cheating." Source: Cellular/Camera Phones

25 High-Frequency Ring Tones High-frequency ring tones can be used by students to send and receive telephone calls during class. It works on the principle that most adults over the age of thirty lose their ability to hear high frequency sounds. Currently, the ring tone accomplishes nothing more than the vibrate function on a typical cellular phone can already do.

26 Cellular/Camera Phones Some students have even resorted to calling 911 with false emergencies (fire, bomb, etc.), in order to temporarily avoid an exam or due date.

27 Basic Remediation Suggestion #3 Option #1: Prohibit personal electronic devices in the classroom. Option #2: Establish a policy of Off and Away in the classroom. (Electronic devices may be brought to class, but must be turned off and stored where they cannot be seen) Option #3: Monitor the use of personal electronic devices in the classroom.

28 Alternatives? Signal Jammers / Blockers The operation of transmitters designed to jam or block wireless communications is a violation of the Communications Act of 1934. Parties in violation of these provisions may be subject to the penalties set out in 47 U.S.C. Sections 501-510. Fines for a first offense can range as high as $11,000 for each violation or imprisonment for up to one year.

29 Alternatives? Startup Markets Wireless-Security Paint Tiny Force Field Wireless is selling paint laced with aluminum and copper that it claims will keep wireless-network traffic within company walls. A small startup in Silicon Valley has an anti-intrusion tool that sells for $69 a gallon--you supply the brush. Force Field Wireless makes three products that it says can dramatically reduce the leakage of wireless signals from a room or building. The company's sales manager, Harold Wray, co-developed DefendAir Radio Shield latex paint, which contains copper filings and an aluminum compound. When spread evenly on a wall, the paint reflects signals in frequencies from 100 MHz to 5 GHz. Paint four walls, a floor, and a ceiling, and you effectively have a Faraday cage, which is a specially constructed metal room that blocks all radio signals in or out, suitable for a CIA director or a determined shut-in. InformationWeek (Dec. 28, 2004) – Jim Nash

30 Media Storage Devices Small, handheld devices such as flash drives, iPods, cellular phones, programmable calculators, and PDAs offer a wide range of possibilities for academic dishonesty. USB capable devices, such as flash drives (left) and iPods (bottom left), can be plugged into teachers computers in order to copy and store up to 40GB of data. Others can be used to access previously loaded data or even the Internet directly from class.

31 Infrared calculators, such as the HP480S, can send and receive files from the classroom. Infrared calculators, such as the HP480S, can send and receive files from the classroom. Other infrared devices with data transmission capabilities: Other infrared devices with data transmission capabilities: Media Storage Devices

32 In addition to stealing data from an unsupervised computer, USB devices such as the flash drive can be loaded with viruses or other malicious software. In addition to stealing data from an unsupervised computer, USB devices such as the flash drive can be loaded with viruses or other malicious software. Such software, once installed onto a computer, can do anything from logging a users passwords, to creating a backdoor access point to the users hard drive. Such software, once installed onto a computer, can do anything from logging a users passwords, to creating a backdoor access point to the users hard drive. Antivirus programs such as Norton Antivirus and McAfee Internet Security offer virus scan options for USB devices. Antivirus programs such as Norton Antivirus and McAfee Internet Security offer virus scan options for USB devices.

33 Classroom Ethics – Rise of the Cybercheat By Patrick Metzger, CBC News December 7, 2006 Even the ubiquitous iPod music player can be used as a digital cheat sheet a company called iPREPpress sells research notes specifically designed for use on an iPod, for example. Essentially the same as the Coles or Cliff notes that students have used for generations, entire books can be downloaded and read on any iPod with a display screen. Media Storage Devices

34 Basic Remediation Suggestion #3 Prohibit or closely monitor media storage devices in the classroom. Never leave students alone with a teachers computer. Lock computer workstation: Press the windows and L keys simultaneously. Install antivirus software. Run virus scans on all student-owned USB devices plugged into teachers computer.

35 Keystroke Logging Even passwords offer little protection against such technology as the keystroke logger. This device can be surreptitiously connected between a keyboard cable and PC to monitor and record all keyed entries. Once analyzed with its proprietary software, a keystroke logger can easily be used to identify passwords and other private data.

36 Internet Cheat Sites Many websites offer cheating advice to students. The following suggestions were found on 1. Write on hands, in between fingers. (well known, but it often works) 2. Write answers on an index card attached to a rubber band that runs up your sleeve. When the Instructor or Proctor gets suspicious, let go and the crib sheet slides up your sleeve and out of sight. This can be tricky but provides an almost infallible way not to get caught. 3. Come in at Night and write on your desk before the test. Make sure you get this desk! This is effective if the desks in the room are already graffitied (most are).

37 Internet Cheat Sites Many websites offer cheating advice to students. The following suggestions were found on 4. Write on those Wooden Octagon Pencils with a nail or something sharp. Write down the side so when you hold the pencil you can actually read it while you write. It makes it hard for teachers to read, because you have to be in the right light. 5. Gum Wrapper (for additional space for the method above, or if you are to lazy to make full wrapper). a. Get a pack of gum, Wrigley's, etc. b. Open up a piece. c. Write cheat notes inside the wrapper. d. Refold the gum. e. During test, eat a piece of gum f. Nonchalantly look at inside of wrapper.

38 Online Advice to Cheaters A CHEATING TESTIMONIAL by Eric Price Since we are attached to the Internet, we can assume every one of us has access to a computer, a word processor, and a printer. While I recommend a laser or high quality ink jet, even a dot matrix will do in a pinch. Now I know that most of us are too lazy to do this, but to make really killer cheat sheets, just use your word processor to type out your definitions, pictures, whatever. Then, when you are all done, shrink the entire document down to 4 point (about the smallest you can still read without a magnifying glass) set the margins to make a sheet small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. I once put entire 5 page essay on crib sheet for a college History exam. Got a perfect grade. Recommend you experiment ahead of time to find that perfect size. Got too much information for one small page? Fold it OR make separate sheets, separated by subject, and stash them in your pockets, etc. These tiny sheets are great in that they may be eaten (been there done that) if the prof gets too close or becomes suspicious. If you think these don't work then how do you explain my 3.95+ GPA in my junior year of college. (Source:

39 Internet Cheating A search for free essays on will yield 77,300,000 results in 0.07 seconds.

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42 Pre-Written Essays Pre-Written essays are available at varying levels of competence. For example, a C student can order a paper with misspellings, poor grammar, and inaccurate interpretations of the literature. Pre-Written essays can often be detected by entering suspicious phrases into search engines such as Google. If the paper is submitted digitally, check the document properties for authorship information.

43 Plagiarism Detection (Online service) (Software – $250-$300) (Online service) (Online service) (Software – $29.95) CopyCatch - EVE 2 (Essay Verification Engine) - Glatt Plagiarism Program - ithenticate - JPlag - MatchDetectReveal - MOSS (Measure of Software Similarity) - MyDropBox/SafeAssignment - PowerResearcher - SIM - Urkund - WCopyfind - Integriguard Word Check


45 Internet Paper Mills A paper mill is a service that can provide either a pre-written or custom essay on demand.

46 Internet Paper Mills Custom Essays are more difficult to track. Most custom essay sites will write original essays on demand, making it impossible to detect on web searches. The best defenses include: Keep writing samples for each student Require draft submissions Ask students to explain their thought processes In-Class Essays!


48 Plagiarism Detection (Online service) (Software – $250-$300) (Online service) (Online service) (Software – $29.95)

49 Google ( can also be used as a detection tool to track down Internet plagiarism. Its advanced search engine capabilities are conducive to locating key phrases that may appear in students' papers. Perform an exact phrase search on a phrase from a suspect part of the paper using the Advanced Search. Plagiarism Detection

50 Step 1: On Google's main page, choose Advanced Search Step 2: Select a distinctive phrase from a suspect paper and type in the "with the exact phrase" search box. Click on "Google Search."

51 Tracking Down Plagiarism from Article Databases InfoTrac and EBSCOhost allow you to search for words or phrases within the full-text of articles. You can track down plagiarized papers, paragraphs and particular sentences. Search for a distinctive phrase using the full-text search option.

52 InfoTrac Step 1: Select Keyword search or Relevance search Step 2: Enter in the search box a distinctive phrase from a suspect paper Step 3: Select the radio button next to "in entire article content" and click on "Search"

53 EBSCOhost Step 1: Select a distinctive phrase or sentence from a suspect paper, and type it the search box Step 2: Select "Also search within the full trext of the articles" Step 3: Click on "Search"

54 Plagiarism Prevention Educate teachers about the potential applications of emerging technology. Educate students as to the proper ways of researching and composing an essay. Prohibit the use of privately-owned technology in the classroom.

55 Sample: The Philosophy Of Friedrich Nietzsche Sometimes philosophy is called "timeless," implying that it's lessons are of value to any generation. This may be hard to see in Nietzsche's work; but, we are assured that it was appropriate thought for his time. However, even Nietzsche's critics admit that his words hold an undeniable truth, as hard as it is to accept. Perhaps this is why his work is timeless, and has survived 150 years in print. Christianity "God is Dead!" announced Zarathustra (better known as Zoroaster), in Neitzsche's proudest book, Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883- 1885). Unlike many philosophers, Nietzsche never tried to prove or disprove the existence of God, just that belief in God can create sickness; and to convince that highest achievements in human life depend on elimination of God. Whether God existed had no relevance in his goal. Proclamation of the death of God was a fundamental ingredient in the revaluation of values Nietzsche advocated. PracticePractice

56 Sample Essay Results: Plagiarized This is a popular essay. It can be found on all of the following websites, and many more as well. It is clear that this student did nothing more than copy an existing essay in its entirety and submit it to his or her teacher. One indication of plagiarism is the inclusion of words in the body of the essay that were clearly intended to be headers. 1. 2. %5CNietzsche_Philosophy.htm 3. 4. 5. 20Nietzsche.htm 6.

57 Review A certain number of students, in almost any learning environment, are going to cheat. Recent technology provides easier and more effective methods of cheating. Teachers can and should learn the dishonest applications of technology. Focus on a combination of education, prevention, and consistent consequences.


59 What is plagiarism? (And why you should care!) Adapted from a document created by Montgomery School District, PA Teaching Tool

60 Definition: Plagiarism is the act of presenting the words, ideas, images, sounds, or the creative expression of others as your own.

61 How serious is the problem? 72% admitted to serious cheating on written assignments. Over half of the students admitted they have engaged in some level of plagiarism on written assignments using the Internet. A study of almost 4,500 students at 25 schools, suggests cheating is... a significant problem in high school - 74% of the respondents admitted to one or more instances of serious test cheating and 72% admitted to serious cheating on written assignments. Over half of the students admitted they have engaged in some level of plagiarism on written assignments using the Internet. Based on the research of Donald L. McCabe, Rutgers University Source: CIA Research. Center for Academic Integrity, Duke University, 2003

62 Students. If: you have included the words and ideas of others in your work that you neglected to cite, you have had help you wouldnt want your teacher to know about,

63 Two types of plagiarism: Intentional Copying a friends work Buying or borrowing papers Cutting and pasting blocks of text from electronic sources without documenting Media borrowingwithout documentation Web publishing without permissions of creators Unintentional Careless paraphrasing Poor documentation Quoting excessively Failure to use your own voice

64 Excuses Its okay if I dont get caught! I was too busy to write that paper! (Job, big game, too much homework!) My teachers expect too much! Ive got to get into Harvard! My parents expect As! This assignment was BORING! Everyone does it!

65 Rationale for academic integrity (as if it were necessary!) When you copy you cheat yourself. You limit your own learning. The consequences are not worth the risks! It is only right to give credit to authors whose ideas you use Citing gives authority to the information you present Citing makes it possible for your readers to locate your source Education is not an us vs. them game! Its about learning to learn! Cheating is unethical behavior Is your academic reputation valuable to you?

66 Real life consequences: Damaged the reputation of two prominent historians, Stephen Ambrose and Doris Kearns Goodwin, Kearns left television position and stepped down as Pulitzer Prize judge for lifting 50 passages for her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (Lewis) Senator Joseph Biden dropped his 1987 campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination. (Sabato) Copied in law school and borrowed from campaign speeches of Robert Kennedy Boston Globe journalist Mike Barnicle forced to resign for plagiarism in his columns (Boston Columnist...) Probe of plagiarism at UVA--45 students dismissed, 3 graduate degrees revoked CNN Article AP. 26 Nov. 2001 Channel One Article AP. 27 Nov. 2002

67 Consequences (contd) New York Times senior reporter Jayson Blair forced to resign after being accused of plagiarism and fraud. The newspaper said at least 36 of the 73 articles he had written had problems with accuracy, calling the deception a "low point" in the newspaper's history. New York Times Exposes Fraud of Own Reporter. ABC News Online. 12 May, 2003.

68 Consequences (contd) A New Jersey valedictorian was denied her seat as a Harvard freshman when it was discovered she plagiarized in a local newspaper.

69 Possible school consequences: 0 on the assignment Parent notification Referral to administrators Suspension or dismissal from school activities-- sports and extracurricular Note on student record Loss of reputation among the school community

70 Is this important? What if: Your architect cheated his way through math class. Will your new home be safe? Your lawyer paid for a copy of the bar exam to study. Will the contract she wrote for you stand up in court? The accountant who does your taxes hired someone to write his papers and paid a stand-in to take his major tests? Does he know enough to complete your tax forms properly? (Lathrop and Foss 87)

71 Do I have to cite everything?

72 Nope! Facts that are widely known, or Information or judgments considered common knowledge Do NOT have to be documented. Hooray for common knowledge!

73 Examples of common knowledge John Adams was our second president The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 If you see a fact in three or more sources, and you are fairly certain your readers already know this information, it is likely to be common knowledge. But when in doubt, cite!

74 No need to document when: You are discussing your own experiences, observations, or reactions Compiling the results of original research, from science experiments, etc. You are using common knowledge

75 Whats the big deal? If I change a few words, Im okay, right? Wrong! Paraphrasing original ideas without documenting your source, is plagiarism too!

76 You can borrow from the works of others in your own work!

77 Use these three strategies: Quoting Paraphrasing Summarizing To blend source materials in with your own, making sure your own voice is heard.

78 Quoting Quotations are the exact words of an author, copied directly from a source, word for word. Quotations must be cited! Use quotations when: You want to add the power of an authors words to support your argument You want to disagree with an authors argument You want to highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages You are comparing and contrasting specific points of view You want to note the important research that precedes your own Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza

79 Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means rephrasing the words of an author, putting his/her thoughts in your own words. When you paraphrase, you rework the sources ideas, words, phrases, and sentence structures with your own. Like quotations, paraphrased material must be followed with in-text documentation and cited on your Works-Cited page. Paraphrase when: You plan to use information on your note cards and wish to avoid plagiarizing You want to avoid overusing quotations You want to use your own voice to present information Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza

80 Summarizing Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) of one or several writers into your own words, including only the main point(s). Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. Again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to their original sources. Summarize when: You want to establish background or offer an overview of a topic You want to describe knowledge (from several sources) about a topic You want to determine the main ideas of a single source Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza

81 As you take notes: Include any direct quotes or unique phrases in quotation marks or mark with a big Q and make sure the speakers / writers name is identified. Make sure you note a paraphrase with the writers name and mark it with a big P Include page numbers and source references so you can go back and check for accuracy as you write.

82 In-text / in-project MLA documentation Purpose--to give immediate source information without interrupting the flow of paper or project. The academic world takes in-text documentation seriously. Inaccurate documentation is as serious as having no documentation at all. Brief information in in-text documentation should match full source information in Works Cited

83 Use in-text / in-project documentation when: You use an original idea from one of your sources, whether you quote or paraphrase it You summarize original ideas from one of your sources You use factual information that is not common knowledge (Cite to be safe.) You quote directly from a source You use a date or fact that might be disputed

84 How do I cite using MLA style ? Parenthetical citations are usually placed at the end of a sentence, before the period, but they may be placed in the middle of sentence Cite the author's last name and the page number In the absence of an author, cite the title and the page number If you are using more than one book by the same author, list the last name, comma, the title, and the page If you identify the author and title in the text, just list the page number

85 But, what about the Web? When citing a Web source in-text, you are not likely to have page numbers. Just include the first part of the entry. (Valenza) or (Plagiarism and the Web)

86 Typical example: Slightly more than 73% of Happy High School students reported plagiarizing papers sometime in their high school careers. (Smith 203)

87 A list of paper mills

88 This next section is for teachers!

89 Preventing plagiarism Set a climate where academic integrity is valued Design thoughtful assignments Set up checkpoints throughout the process: drafts, outlines, organizers, preliminary works cited Keep portfolios of student writing Vary assignments and topic suggestions each semester Describe the degree to which collaboration is acceptable to your students Require an annotated bibliography Shorter papers are okay

90 Preventing Plagiarism (contd) Make sure students understand what plagiarism is and how you expect them to document Make sure students know how seriously you personally take plagiarism as a violation of your trust and school and class rules of conduct. Make sure you are aware of how students plagiarize Make sure students know that you check for plagiarism

91 Prevention Ask for outlines and drafts Have students present research orally Ask the student under suspicion to read one or two difficult paragraphs and explain Have students present and defend their research orally Ask for photocopies of best sources (Lathrop and Foss 163-166)

92 Prevention Require specific components Require drafts prior to due dates Require oral defense or presentation Include annotated bibliography Require up-to-date references Require a meta-learning essay in class after papers have been submitted (Lathrop and Foss 194-195)

93 When you suspect plagiarism Ask librarian for help (other sources beyond free web) Pick an unusual string of words and search on Google, All the Web, AltaVista five or six words in quotation marks Ask the student why certain phrases or words were used, or to identify location of a specific fact. Check to see if all citations are listed in Works Cited Check for inconsistencies in font, bibliographic format, text size, layout, and question them Does the paper not exactly match the assignment? Chat with other teachers about the students work (Lathrop and Foss 163166, 194-195)

94 When you suspect plagiarism 2 Ask to see drafts, outlines, etc. (Ask students to save them in advance!) Compare to other student work. Look for vocabulary, variation in sentence length, etc. Make a copy of a section, cut it into paragraphs and ask student to reassemble Discuss the paper. Ask student to defend opinions. Why he or she chose that specific evidence Ask student to read aloud paragraphs with unusual vocabulary or scholarly terms. Note fluency. Have student explain or paraphrase Does writing shift styles, especially in the middle? Ask where some items in the bibliography were located Ask student to relocate sources Ask why no recent sources were cited (Lathrop and Foss 163166)

95 Works Cited Boston Columnist Resigns Amid New Plagiarism Charges. 19 Aug. 1998 3 March 2003 Fain, Margaret. Internet Paper Mills. Kimbal Library. 12 Feb. 2003. Lathrop, Ann and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2000. Lewis, Mark. Doris Kearns Goodwin And The Credibility Gap. 2 Feb. 2002. New York Times Exposes Fraud of own Reporter. ABC News Online. 12 May, 2003. Sabato, Larry J. Joseph Biden's Plagiarism; Michael Dukakis's 'Attack Video' – 1988. Washington Post Online. 1998. 3 March 2002.

96 Contact Info: Email: Subject Line: Academic Integrity Ppoint

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