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The Scientific Method 7 Steps to a Logical Process.

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Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Method 7 Steps to a Logical Process."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Scientific Method 7 Steps to a Logical Process

3 1. Hypothesis versus Theory Hypothesis: Educated guess Outcome If I do….then I expect…… correct or incorrect Theory: Established idea Factual Experiments Data

4 Control versus Experimental groups Control: comparisons Normal condition Eliminates bias Experimental one variable one condition different from control more variables = more controls

5 Experimental Variables: Independent Variable: One condition that is changed from the control group Example: control = normal plant growth conditions independent variable= growth under no fertilizer Dependent Variable: the condition measured as a result of adding the independent variable Example: Measure growth in height as a result of no fertilizer

6 3 & 7.Data versus Opinion …... Data: Factual Measurable Replicates Opinion: Personal Inferences versus observations? bias

7 4. Types of Experimental Bias as opinion: Expectations Influences results Psychology experiments in design: Unequal treatment Poor Controls Plant experiments

8 Replicates of each group: Replicate= Make an exact copy Each group must have more than one setup for comparing results & verifying test conditions Minimum of 10 replicates

9 Scientific Data Must Be….. Measurable Quantifiable NOT opinion or judgment

10 7 Steps of the Scientific Method ? Different ? Precise ? Steps necessary? ? Most important

11 1. Identify the question What How Not Why

12 2. Background research …... Libraries Internet Experiments Researchers Interviews

13 3. State you hypothesis Educated guess Outcome Cause……leads to effect IF I do………then I expect………….

14 4. Design an experiment 1.Control 2.Experimental Group 3.One variable 4.Replicates

15 5. Collect data Measurable Machine Tool Color chart Factual

16 6. Analyze data Agreement in replicates Good Controls Graph trends

17 7. Communicate results Publish Conference Web page Design errors

18 CONCLUSION: Which Step? What is needed? Measurable Data

19 Characteristics of Living Things: Structure & organization: cells, DNA, tissues & organs Reproduction Growth & development Respond to their environment Metabolism: sum of all chemical reactions Maintain homeostasis by using energy Adapt and evolve

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