Presentation on theme: "KWLQ What is Energy? K: What do you know? W: What do you want to know? L: What did you learn? Q: What questions do you have?"— Presentation transcript:
KWLQ What is Energy? K: What do you know? W: What do you want to know? L: What did you learn? Q: What questions do you have?
Energy is the ability to work. Work is done when a force exerted on an object moves that object some distance. Work is a transfer of energy NOTES 98-101
Both work and energy are measured in joules. Units are: Newtons x meters or Joules Work & energy is force times distance
Two Types of Energy Kinetic Energy Energy associated with motion Ex. Dropping the bowling ball. Potential Energy Stored energy Ex. Lifting a bowling ball to a height.
Kinetic Energy= 1/2mass X velocity squared Kinetic Energy = ½m x v ²
Kinetic energy depends on the square velocity! So at twice the speed the truck has 4 x the energy A more massive truck has more kinetic energy. If the truck has a mass of 3,600Kg and a velocity of 10m/s, whats its Kinetic energy? KE = (½ 3600Kg) X (10m/s) ² = 180000J
Equation for Gravitational Potential energy PEgrav = mass x gravity x height or PEgrav = m x g x h
Another type of Potential Energy Elastic PE PE associated with objects that can be stretched or compressed.
Elastic Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy PEgrav = mass x gravity x height 50Kg 10 meters high PEgrav = 50Kg x 9.8m/s/s x 10m = 4900J
Now calculate Kinetic Energy KE = (½ 50Kg) X (9.8m/s)² = 2401 J 50Kg Whats its velocity if it falls for one second? Kinetic Energy = ½m x v²
Energy conversion – a change from one form of energy to another form.
Energy conversion cont… Most forms of energy can be converted into other forms Example: Mechanical energy (running water) can be converted into electrical energy (electricity)
Gas engine photosynthesis Heat lamp or hair dryer Oil electricity via power plant Food your body For example burning coal at an electrical power plant converts chemical energy into heat. The heat makes steam which turns turbines mechanical energy to make electrical energy. The electrical energy is converted back into heat (oven), light (lights in the house), and mechanical energy (a cars engine) when it is used.
Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy: when one form of energy is converted into another form of energy, no energy is destroyed in the process Energy can not be created or destroyed
Different Forms of Energy Mechanical = motion or position of an object Thermal = total energy of the particles in an object (the more energy the more heat is given off) Chemical = PE stored in chemical bonds (food)
Electrical = energy caused by moving electric charges
Electromagnetic energy = visible light, microwaves, x-rays, and uv light
Nuclear = fission and fusion
Power Power is the amount of work done in a given time. Equation for power Power = work/time or Power= force x distance/time
Power cont….. Units for Power Joules/second or… Watt (w)
Formation of fossil fuels In the earths crust, under distinct pressure, temperature and geological processes, nonrenewable energy formed from once living organisms.
Common Types of Fossil Fuels Coal Oil (petroleum) Natural Gas
Fossil Fuels make good fuels because the energy stored in them is abundant and easy to release when heated. Methane CH4 (gas) Ethane C2H6 (gas) Propane C3H8 (gas) Butane C4H10 (gas) Pentane C5H12 (liquid, found in gasoline) Hexane C6H14 (liquid, found in gasoline) Heptane C7H16 (liquid, found in gasoline) Octane C8H18 (liquid, found in gasoline) Pentadecane C15H32 (liquid, found in kerosene and jet fuel) Tetracosane C24H50 (liquid, found in lubricating oil)
Some common uses of Crude Oil Solvents Fertilizers Pesticides Plastics Diesel fuel Jet fuel liquified petroleum gas plastics Kerosene Synthetic fibers Synthetic rubber Detergents