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Chapter 4: Ecosystems, Ecology, and Food Webs Doug Friedman, Jane Beiner, Shayna Benavidez.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Ecosystems, Ecology, and Food Webs Doug Friedman, Jane Beiner, Shayna Benavidez."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4: Ecosystems, Ecology, and Food Webs Doug Friedman, Jane Beiner, Shayna Benavidez

2 Article I: Ecology & Life

3 Ecology Ecology in Greek is house or place to live Study between organisms & their environment Examining how organisms interact with their environment

4 Organisms Forms of Life which can be classified into species million species, most are insects and microorganisms About 1.8 million named

5 Wild & Domesticated Species Wild A species that lives in its natural environment (where its ancestors lived) Domestic A species that was removed from its natural environment and placed in an environment that supports the needs and wants of HUMANS

6 Some Words to Know Populations – Organisms that are part of the same species and live in the same area of space Genetic Diversity – Each different organism has a different genetic make- up Habitat – The place where a population lives. Each one can very in size and place. Biological Community – A population that consists of a variety of species that live in a particular place.

7 One more Word Ecosystem – A community of different species interacting with other species & their non-living environment Natural or Artificial

8 LIFE! Living things are made up of one or more calls containing DNA DNA is the instructions for making new cells and amino acids Metabolism – Chemical reaction that capture and transform matter and energy from the environment to supply the organism

9 More LIFE Homeostasis – Maintains optimal conditions despite changes to the environment Reproduction – Asexual Single cell division, or self fertilization – Sexual Organisms exchange gametes and fertilize the ova to create offspring.

10 Article II: Earths Life-Support Systems

11 Layers Core – Fe and Trace N – Solid & Liquid Mantle – Fe, Si, O, Mg – Solid and Liquid Responsible for continental drift Crust – Fossil Fuels – Where we life

12 Spheres Lithosphere – Upper mantle and crust Atmosphere – Thin envelope of air around the lithosphere Bio-Ecosphere – Biotic and Abiotic Habitats

13 What is Needed to Sustain Life? One way flow of energy – EX: Sunlight through feeding cycles, then into environment and eventually back out as infrared rays Cycle of Matter and Nutrients Gravity

14 Cycles Carbon – CO 2 from the atmosphere and earths water. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Phosphorus – DNA transfers Nitrogen – Atmospheric N to the soil, helps with amino acids Water – Storage, evaporation, precipitation, runoff Oxygen

15 Open or Closed? Closed – ENERGY is exchanged with the environment (earth) Open – ENERGY and MATTER is exchanged with the environment (animals)

16 The Sun Photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O + sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Earth gets 1 billionth of the suns energy 28% is reflected into space.023% gets absorbed by plants

17 Article III: Ecosystem Concepts

18 Intro Biomes – Large Regions Characterized by features Basic Zones – Land – Ecotone (transition) – Aquatic

19 Components of an Ecosystem tics – Biotic Living part of ecosystem – Abiotic Non-living part of ecosystem

20 ABIOTIC Examples Air Water Nutrients Solar Energy Precipitation Wind Altitude Latitude Frequency of Fire Nature of Soil Water Currents Concentrations

21 Laws and Factors Law of Tolerance – The existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the range tolerated by that species Limiting Factor Principle – Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can prevent growth of a species

22 BIOTIC Autotrophs-Producers – Photosynthesis – Chemosysthesis Heterotrophs-Consumers – Herbivores-Primary – Carnivores-Secondary-Tertiary – Scavengers eat already dead animals

23 Continued Decomposers – Break down dead organisms into nutrients – Detritivors eat dead animals – Bacteria – Fungi

24 GOAL OF ALL PRODUCERS & CONSUMERS Aerobic Respiration ENERGY C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O +ENERGY

25 Article IV: Food Webs and Energy Flow in Ecosystems

26 A few Definitions Trophic Level – Feeding level Biomass – Dry weight which is not counted with water because water is not a source of energy – Only small amounts of what is eaten is actually converted into biomass

27 ENERGY Some energy is lost from trophic level to trophic level 5-20% of energy is transferred from level to level The more trophic levels the greater cumulative loss of flow (pyramid of energy flow) – The energy flow triangle shows earth could support more people if we ate grains instead of grazing animals

28 ENERGY (ctd) There energy loss is so large we can only support 4-5 trophic levels Gross Primary Productivity (GPP): – The rate it takes ecosystems to convert solar energy into chemical energy as biomass Net Primary Productivity (NPP): – It is what is left of the biomass after the organism has used parts of it to stay alive, and reproduce

29 ENERGY (ctd) NPP is available to other organisms as food The earths total NPP is the upper limit determining the planets carrying capacity for all species Most Productivity: – Estuaries – Swamps – Marshes – Tropical Rain Forest

30 ENERGY (ctd) Least Productive: – Open Ocean – Tundra – Desert 59% of NPP from Land, 41% of NPP from Water Open ocean contributes a lot to NPP but phytoplankton is not reasonably harvestable HUMANS waste 27% of potential NPP and 40% of actual


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