Presentation on theme: "Causes of World War I Europe at its peak:"— Presentation transcript:
1Causes of World War I Europe at its peak: 25% of worlds population lived in EuropeModernization led to sense that Europeanswere at the peak of World CivilizationImperial Tensions-European mations competed for coloniesMilitarism-Glorification of war and increase in military spending
2NationalismCombined with militarism and imperial competition, this increased tensions in EuropeThe System of Alliances- web of treaties to protect themselves
3World War I -notes Triple Alliance 1882 Germany Austria- Hungary Italy Triple Entente 1907FranceRussiaBritainNationalism-Devotion to the interests or culture of a particular nation.Imperialism-The policy of extenidng a nations authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and authority over other nationsMilitary Build-up -Military expenditures jumped 300%between 1870 and 1914
4Events leading to WWIJune 28,1914 in Sarajevo, Capital of Bosnia- Archduke Francis Ferdinand, was murdered by 7 assassins fromthe “Black Hand” a Serbian nationalist group.19 year old Gavrillo Princip shot the Archduke + wifeJuly 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on SerbiaThe next day Russia mobilized troops to support Serbia.August 1, 1914 Germany declared War on Russia. A few days later Germany declared war on France.
5Gavrilo PrincipPrincip (second from right) being taken into custody in Sarajevo
6War Breaks Out European nations are in alliances Assassination of the ArchdukeGermany gives Austria-Hungary “blank Check” of military supportAustria- Hungary gives Serbia ULTIMATUMAustria-Hungary declares war on SerbiaRussia supported Serbia and Germany supported Austria-Hun.-Germany declares war on Russia and France-Britain declares war on Germany
7Fronts of the War THE WESTERN FRONT Germany tried to take France quickly in the Western front and then turn to fight Russia instead battle lines formed in France and changed little.Battle at Verdun-680,000 casualties, Somme- over one million casualties
8THE EASTERN FRONT THE ITALIAN FRONT Lack of modern technology caused Russia enormous defeatsRussia fell into a civil war during WWI-signed a peace treaty with Germany-had to give up 1/4 of their country.THE ITALIAN FRONTThe Italians joined the Triple Entente in 1915 and fought Austria-Hungary
9New Weapons used in the War THE MACHINE GUNModern industry replaced the single fire riflefired 8 rounds per secondARTILLERYgreater power and could be fired a greater distance“big Bertha”24 million shells used in the Battle of Verdun
10Weapons of the Industrial Age 75 different types of poison-gas bombs usedFlame throwersTanksAirplanes
11Casualties of Modern Weaponry Tactics of sending masses of men toward enemy didn’t work against mod. WeaponsBritain suffered 57,470 casualties on the first day of the battle of the SommeTotal losses for WWI exceeded 10 million
12This type of mask was not effective in filtering out the more deadly phosgene and diphosgene gases. There was nomask that could offerprotection from the blisteringmustard gas which attacks all exposed flesh.
15Blistering AgentDichlorethylsulphide: the most dreaded of all chemicalweapons in World War I - mustard gas. Unlike the other gaseswhich attack the respiratory system, this gas acts on any exposed,moist skin. This includes, but is not limited to, the eyes, lungs,armpits and groin. A gas mask could offer very little protection.The oily agent would produce large burn-like blisters whereverit came in contact with skin. It also had a nasty way of hangingabout in low areas for hours, even days, after being dispersed.A soldier jumping into a shell crater to seek cover could findhimself blinded, with skin blistering and lungs bleeding.
16The first army issue gas masks werelittle more thangauze bandages with ties.In 1918 a German corporal by the name of Adolf Hitler wastemporarily blinded by a British gas attack in Flanders.Having suffered the agonies of gas first hand, his fearof the weapon would prevent him from deploying it asa tactical weapon on the battlefields of the Second World War.
17The shells they fired weighed 1,786 pounds and they could fire one every 6 minutes.
18German 42cm "Big Bertha", named for Bertha Krupp
19French troops loading a 40cm shell into a railway gun
20As prey: a crippled U-boat pursued by British Curtiss 'Large America' flying boats. Painting by C.R. Fleming-Williams
21View from the tower as a torpedo hits home on a merchant ship
23UC 44 Class U-boat: 1) Aft torpedo tubes 2) Electric motor 3) Main engine 4) Control room 5) Mine tubes6) Forward torpedo tubes 7) Crew quarters
24The Reality of Soldiers’ Lives Patriotic FervorMany Europeans looked forward to war at the startAttitudes change- Soldiers changes Euro’s optimistic fervor through letters about the horrors of warThe Return Home- no crowds or heroes’ welcome after the war
25Typical British gear inluding rifle, gas mask and helmet. Each soldier was expected to carry this 70 pounds ofequipment into battle
26German infantry in the 1914 uniforms near the start of the war.
27Trench Warfare The Race to the Sea 475 miles of trenches were dug across N. FranceBritish troops used over 10 million shovelsLIFE IN THE TRENCHES-charging over the top-crossing NO MANS LAND to reach enemy trenchesBoring, terrifying, and caused shell shockHorrible living conditions
28These vast German trenches near Bullecourt are part of the heavily fortified Hindenburg Line
29Effect of the War on the Home Front Mobilizations for Total WarCivilians back home made huge sacrificesGov’ts controlled industries, rationingNew Jobs for Women- took jobs men traditionally held.Number in paid employment rose by over one millionDiscovered autonomy and greater mobilityWomen won the right to vote throughout Europe
30British newspaper announces the first Zeppelin raid on London, 31-May-1915.
31All in all, the German Naval Airship Service made a total of 159 sorties over Britain killing 557 people and inflicting $7,500,000in property damage.In the end, it hardly seemed worth the effort.
32Poster and Diagram Project Draw a “PROPAGANDA POSTER”. You may choose either side to show your support. (Either the Alliance or Entente) Choose a topic or event which will stir emotions in your chosen country. Be sure it causes some kind of negative or positive emotions. The poster must then influence the peoples ideas about another country, and the event that took place.
33DiagramCreate a diagram of “TRENCH WARFARE”. You must show in detail the trenches, what they include, outside of the trenches, and weapons used. ( Be sure to include any other useful information) Then include a detailed description of life in the trenches.
34The Russian Revolution 1914- Russian Army poorly organized and equipped.Czar Nicholas II goes to the front to rally the troops.1917- March Revolution- people unhappy-Defeats in the war, striking workers, discontent.Soldiers ordered to shoot- join riotersCzar -train is stopped, abdicates power
35United States Involvement in WWI 1914-Since the start of the war the US declared neutrality.France and Britain spread propaganda in the US claiming how Germans were evil and cruel
361915 Germans begin sinking cargo & merchant ships German U-Boats sink the passenger ship Lusitania- 128 Americans killedU.S. upset- hatred of Germany beginsAmerican banks loaned 1.5 billion to allied gov’ts to buy needed supplies from the U.S.
371917Zimmerman telegram intercepted- Germany proposes an alliance with MexicoApril 1917 U.S. Declares war on Germany
381918 Russia Withdraws from the war Victory seems easy for Germans until the Americans arriveAmerica’s major contribution is in suppliesAllies halt the Germans at the battle of the Marne, becomes the decisive turning point of the war
39Peace of VengeanceFrance and Britain created a severe treaty that punished GermanyGermany had to:Return Alscace-Lorrain region to FranceKeep area near France, called Rhineland, demilitarizedPay war reparations of 32 billion dollarsAgree to war guilt clause
40Woodrow Wilson tried to unite many countries in the League of Nations - for all practical purposes, it failed.
41President Wilson’s Fourteen Points No secret treatiesPeace without VictoryFree and open tradeFair treatment of colonial peopleLeague of NationsONLY League of Nations was passed-and our congress didn’t approve it
42The Paris Peace Conference Wilson Wanted a “peace of Justice”Treaty of Versailles-became the first steps to WWII.TEST FRIDAY STUDY!!!click on teachers pages- Cassaw-WWI notes
43HOW DO I STUDY?CH. 8 begins on 272 in your text. Look back at the section review questions -especially the Define and Identify vocab.Review the notes on powerpointStudy the WWI Packet of hand outs and your answers to the questions.(the first page of the hand out is titled “Europe before World War I”