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Causes of World War I Europe at its peak:

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1 Causes of World War I Europe at its peak:
25% of worlds population lived in Europe Modernization led to sense that Europeans were at the peak of World Civilization Imperial Tensions-European mations competed for colonies Militarism-Glorification of war and increase in military spending

2 Nationalism Combined with militarism and imperial competition, this increased tensions in Europe The System of Alliances- web of treaties to protect themselves

3 World War I -notes Triple Alliance 1882 Germany Austria- Hungary Italy
Triple Entente 1907 France Russia Britain Nationalism-Devotion to the interests or culture of a particular nation. Imperialism-The policy of extenidng a nations authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and authority over other nations Military Build-up -Military expenditures jumped 300%between 1870 and 1914

4 Events leading to WWI June 28,1914 in Sarajevo, Capital of Bosnia- Archduke Francis Ferdinand, was murdered by 7 assassins from the “Black Hand” a Serbian nationalist group. 19 year old Gavrillo Princip shot the Archduke + wife July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia The next day Russia mobilized troops to support Serbia. August 1, 1914 Germany declared War on Russia. A few days later Germany declared war on France.

5 Gavrilo Princip Princip (second from right) being taken into custody in Sarajevo

6 War Breaks Out European nations are in alliances
Assassination of the Archduke Germany gives Austria-Hungary “blank Check” of military support Austria- Hungary gives Serbia ULTIMATUM Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Russia supported Serbia and Germany supported Austria-Hun. -Germany declares war on Russia and France -Britain declares war on Germany

7 Fronts of the War THE WESTERN FRONT
Germany tried to take France quickly in the Western front and then turn to fight Russia instead battle lines formed in France and changed little. Battle at Verdun-680,000 casualties, Somme- over one million casualties

8 THE EASTERN FRONT THE ITALIAN FRONT
Lack of modern technology caused Russia enormous defeats Russia fell into a civil war during WWI-signed a peace treaty with Germany-had to give up 1/4 of their country. THE ITALIAN FRONT The Italians joined the Triple Entente in 1915 and fought Austria-Hungary

9 New Weapons used in the War
THE MACHINE GUN Modern industry replaced the single fire rifle fired 8 rounds per second ARTILLERY greater power and could be fired a greater distance “big Bertha” 24 million shells used in the Battle of Verdun

10 Weapons of the Industrial Age
75 different types of poison-gas bombs used Flame throwers Tanks Airplanes

11 Casualties of Modern Weaponry
Tactics of sending masses of men toward enemy didn’t work against mod. Weapons Britain suffered 57,470 casualties on the first day of the battle of the Somme Total losses for WWI exceeded 10 million

12 This type of mask was not effective in filtering out the more deadly
phosgene and diphosgene gases. There was no mask that could offerprotection from the blistering mustard gas which attacks all exposed flesh.

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15 Blistering Agent Dichlorethylsulphide: the most dreaded of all chemical weapons in World War I - mustard gas. Unlike the other gases which attack the respiratory system, this gas acts on any exposed, moist skin. This includes, but is not limited to, the eyes, lungs, armpits and groin. A gas mask could offer very little protection. The oily agent would produce large burn-like blisters wherever it came in contact with skin. It also had a nasty way of hanging about in low areas for hours, even days, after being dispersed. A soldier jumping into a shell crater to seek cover could find himself blinded, with skin blistering and lungs bleeding.

16 The first army issue gas
masks were little more than gauze bandages with ties. In 1918 a German corporal by the name of Adolf Hitler was temporarily blinded by a British gas attack in Flanders. Having suffered the agonies of gas first hand, his fear of the weapon would prevent him from deploying it as a tactical weapon on the battlefields of the Second World War.

17 The shells they fired weighed 1,786 pounds and they
could fire one every 6 minutes.

18 German 42cm "Big Bertha", named for Bertha Krupp

19 French troops loading a 40cm shell into a railway gun

20 As prey: a crippled U-boat pursued by British Curtiss
'Large America' flying boats. Painting by C.R. Fleming-Williams

21 View from the tower as a torpedo hits home on a merchant ship

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23 UC 44 Class U-boat: 1) Aft torpedo tubes 2) Electric motor
3) Main engine 4) Control room 5) Mine tubes 6) Forward torpedo tubes 7) Crew quarters

24 The Reality of Soldiers’ Lives
Patriotic Fervor Many Europeans looked forward to war at the start Attitudes change- Soldiers changes Euro’s optimistic fervor through letters about the horrors of war The Return Home- no crowds or heroes’ welcome after the war

25 Typical British gear inluding rifle, gas mask and helmet.
Each soldier was expected to carry this 70 pounds of equipment into battle

26 German infantry in the 1914 uniforms near the start of the war.

27 Trench Warfare The Race to the Sea
475 miles of trenches were dug across N. France British troops used over 10 million shovels LIFE IN THE TRENCHES- charging over the top-crossing NO MANS LAND to reach enemy trenches Boring, terrifying, and caused shell shock Horrible living conditions

28 These vast German trenches near Bullecourt are part of the
heavily fortified Hindenburg Line

29 Effect of the War on the Home Front
Mobilizations for Total War Civilians back home made huge sacrifices Gov’ts controlled industries, rationing New Jobs for Women- took jobs men traditionally held. Number in paid employment rose by over one million Discovered autonomy and greater mobility Women won the right to vote throughout Europe

30 British newspaper announces the first Zeppelin
raid on London, 31-May-1915.

31 All in all, the German Naval Airship Service made a total of 159 sorties
over Britain killing 557 people and inflicting $7,500,000 in property damage.In the end, it hardly seemed worth the effort.

32 Poster and Diagram Project
Draw a “PROPAGANDA POSTER”. You may choose either side to show your support. (Either the Alliance or Entente) Choose a topic or event which will stir emotions in your chosen country. Be sure it causes some kind of negative or positive emotions. The poster must then influence the peoples ideas about another country, and the event that took place.

33 Diagram Create a diagram of “TRENCH WARFARE”. You must show in detail the trenches, what they include, outside of the trenches, and weapons used. ( Be sure to include any other useful information) Then include a detailed description of life in the trenches.

34 The Russian Revolution
1914- Russian Army poorly organized and equipped. Czar Nicholas II goes to the front to rally the troops. 1917- March Revolution- people unhappy- Defeats in the war, striking workers, discontent. Soldiers ordered to shoot- join rioters Czar -train is stopped, abdicates power

35 United States Involvement in WWI
1914-Since the start of the war the US declared neutrality. France and Britain spread propaganda in the US claiming how Germans were evil and cruel

36 1915 Germans begin sinking cargo & merchant ships
German U-Boats sink the passenger ship Lusitania- 128 Americans killed U.S. upset- hatred of Germany begins American banks loaned 1.5 billion to allied gov’ts to buy needed supplies from the U.S.

37 1917 Zimmerman telegram intercepted- Germany proposes an alliance with Mexico April 1917 U.S. Declares war on Germany

38 1918 Russia Withdraws from the war
Victory seems easy for Germans until the Americans arrive America’s major contribution is in supplies Allies halt the Germans at the battle of the Marne, becomes the decisive turning point of the war

39 Peace of Vengeance France and Britain created a severe treaty that punished Germany Germany had to: Return Alscace-Lorrain region to France Keep area near France, called Rhineland, demilitarized Pay war reparations of 32 billion dollars Agree to war guilt clause

40 Woodrow Wilson tried to unite many countries in the League of Nations - for all practical purposes, it failed.

41 President Wilson’s Fourteen Points
No secret treaties Peace without Victory Free and open trade Fair treatment of colonial people League of Nations ONLY League of Nations was passed-and our congress didn’t approve it

42 The Paris Peace Conference
Wilson Wanted a “peace of Justice” Treaty of Versailles-became the first steps to WWII. TEST FRIDAY STUDY!!! click on teachers pages- Cassaw- WWI notes

43 HOW DO I STUDY? CH. 8 begins on 272 in your text. Look back at the section review questions -especially the Define and Identify vocab. Review the notes on powerpoint Study the WWI Packet of hand outs and your answers to the questions. (the first page of the hand out is titled “Europe before World War I”


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