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Kingdom Archaebactreria & Eubacteria formally (Prokaryota & Monera) Bacteria Ch 18.2 Prokaryotes = no membrane bound organelles (no nucleus or mitochondria)

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Archaebactreria & Eubacteria formally (Prokaryota & Monera) Bacteria Ch 18.2 Prokaryotes = no membrane bound organelles (no nucleus or mitochondria)"— Presentation transcript:


2 Kingdom Archaebactreria & Eubacteria formally (Prokaryota & Monera) Bacteria Ch 18.2 Prokaryotes = no membrane bound organelles (no nucleus or mitochondria)

3 6 Major Kingdoms: 1. Archaebacteria 2. Eubacteria 3. Protista 4. Fungi 5. Planta 6. Animalia 1 cell, prokaryotes 1 cell, eukaryotes & algae Multicelled, absorptive feeders Muticelled, autotrophs Muticelled heterotrophs

4 C. Three major differences between the 2 bacteria Kingdoms: (All are prokaryotes & One celled, Ubiquitous = found everywhere) Many biochemical differences Difference cell walls and lipid membranes Structure & functions of the of the archaebacteria are more similar to the Eukaryotes

5 Bacteria Kingdom Characteristics: Archaebacteria Extremists No free oxygen Methane producers Saline habitats Hot sulfur springs Eubacteria Heterotrophs Parasites Saprobes Nitrogen decomp. Phtotosynthetic autotrophs Cyno-blue green Chemosynthetic

6 IV 1.Penicillin

7 Penicillin mold kills bacteria Antibiotic Alexander Fleming in 1928 Inhibits the growth of bacteria

8 Macrophage (WBC) engulfs a bacterium in the immune system:

9 Bacteria Structure:

10 Classified by shape, size, staining, environment, & color Cynobacteria & Salmonella Autotroph BacteriaFlagellated Bacteria

11 Spiral or spirilli) Spirochete Bacteria Round = Coccus and Rod = Bacillus

12 Bacilli Tuberculosis Bacteria:

13 Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection

14 IV 3-4Bacteria reproduction: Sexual Conjugation Exchange of DNA Variety in Changing conditions Asexual Binary fission Mitosis Replicate Non-changing conditions

15 IV 5. Aerobic Bacteria require oxygen & can make cavities!

16 Anaerobic Bacteria live without oxygen, in our intestines & may be in polluted waters E. Coli from human feces Helpful in the intestines Harmful in other parts of the body

17 IV 6. Endospores Dormant state No reproduction Metabolic activity is shut down Protects bacteria against hostile environments Come back to life when favorable

18 Many organisms form spores:

19 V. The 4 main functions of bacteria 1. Nitrogen fixation 2. Recycling of nutrients 3. Food & medicines 4. Bacteria cause diseases

20 Nitrogen wastes are excreted & cycled by bacteria Nitrogen in Plant & animal protein Ammonia nitrogen Is excreted in urine Bacteria convert Ammonia to usable Nitrate fertilizer

21 Making cheese & yogurt with bacteria

22 Strep bacteria of Rheumatic Fever

23 STDEubacteriumVirus SyphilisXX ChlamydeousXX GonorrheaXx HerpesXX HIVXx Aids (death)noBy common diseases When the immune system fails Coldx Flux Strep throatx

24 ?Life on Mars?

25 This meteorite was probably blasted off of the surface of the planet Mars about 16 million years ago by an impact with an asteroid and travelled through space to the earth, where it landed on Antarctica about 13,000 years ago. Some scientists believe that the rod-shaped structures across the top and center of this image may be tiny fossilized bacteria. Many other scientists believe that the structures were formed by processes other than life. NASA/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Martian Meteorite ALH84001," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. © 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

26 Bacteria cultures: Inoculate = to place Agar = culture medium (nutrients) One colony (circle)= billions of bacteria A colony begins from one bacterium Incubate at 37oC= body temperature DO NOT OPEN THE PLATES AFTER INCUBATION!

27 Bactericide test strip: Kills germs! Versus Bactericide? Antibiotic? 1. Mouth wash 2. Neosporin 3. Cleaning agents Plate 1 = control at my desk 2. Your choice 3. Your choice 4. Saliva 5. Saliva plus Bactericide

28 Summary Questions: 6. View under higher magnification with stains for specific types of bacteria 7. Classified by shape: a. round = cocci b. rods = bacilli c. spiral = spirilli

29 Genetic Engineering of Insulin

30 Restriction Enzymes: Made by some Bacteria

31 Warts are a skin virus!

32 Plant peach virus

33 Polio virus

34 Herpes mouth virus:

35 Rabies Virus

36 Hepatitis B virus (Liver)

37 Virus structure : Protein Coat DNA or RNA for replication Adsorb- tion site Host specific

38 HIV virus structure:

39 Cow pox vaccination 1749 Acquired Immunization Artificial injection of a small amount of virus Bodys immune response makes antibodies

40 Chicken Pox Virus

41 Viral Replication:

42 Bacteriophage Bacteria eating virus Virus uses the bacteria as a host For Viral replication

43 Lytic Cycle (Replication) of a Virus - AVIRAL 1.Adsorption of virus onto the host 2. Insertion of Virus DNA into host cell 3. Replication of Viral DNA 4. Assembly of protein coat 5.Lysis of Host cell Membrane & release Of virus

44 Transduction: Viral DNA becomes inserted Into the Bacteria DNA (1/100,000)

45 HIV Virus

46 HIV virus infects T-cells HIV virus Weakens the immune system AIDS patients die of common diseases when T cell (WBC) count falls

47 AIDS = break down of the immune system & death due to common diseases versus death by AIDS virus

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