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Kingdom Archaebactreria & Eubacteria formally (Prokaryota & Monera)

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Archaebactreria & Eubacteria formally (Prokaryota & Monera)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Archaebactreria & Eubacteria formally (Prokaryota & Monera)
Bacteria Ch 18.2 Prokaryotes = no membrane bound organelles (no nucleus or mitochondria)

2 6 Major Kingdoms: Protista Fungi Planta Animalia Archaebacteria
Eubacteria Protista Fungi Planta Animalia 1 cell, prokaryotes 1 cell, eukaryotes & algae Multicelled, absorptive feeders Muticelled, autotrophs Muticelled heterotrophs

3 C. Three major differences between the 2 bacteria Kingdoms:
(All are prokaryotes & One celled, Ubiquitous = found everywhere) Many biochemical differences Difference cell walls and lipid membranes Structure & functions of the of the archaebacteria are more similar to the Eukaryotes

4 Bacteria Kingdom Characteristics:
Eubacteria Heterotrophs Parasites Saprobes Nitrogen decomp. Phtotosynthetic autotrophs Cyno-blue green Chemosynthetic Archaebacteria Extremists No free oxygen Methane producers Saline habitats Hot sulfur springs

5 IV 1.Penicillin

6 Penicillin mold kills bacteria
“Antibiotic” Alexander Fleming in 1928 Inhibits the growth of bacteria

7 Macrophage (WBC) engulfs a bacterium in the immune system:

8 Bacteria Structure:

9 Classified by shape, size, staining, environment, & color Cynobacteria & Salmonella
Autotroph Bacteria Flagellated Bacteria

10 Spiral or spirilli) Spirochete Bacteria
Round = Coccus and Rod = Bacillus

11 Bacilli Tuberculosis Bacteria:

12 Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection

13 IV 3-4Bacteria reproduction:
Asexual Binary fission Mitosis Replicate Non-changing conditions Sexual Conjugation Exchange of DNA Variety in Changing conditions

14 IV 5. Aerobic Bacteria require oxygen & can make cavities!

15 Helpful in the intestines Harmful in other parts of the body
Anaerobic Bacteria live without oxygen, in our intestines & may be in polluted waters E. Coli from human feces Helpful in the intestines Harmful in other parts of the body

16 IV 6. Endospores Dormant state No reproduction
Metabolic activity is shut down Protects bacteria against hostile environments “Come back to life” when favorable

17 Many organisms form spores:

18 V. The 4 main functions of bacteria
Nitrogen fixation Recycling of nutrients Food & medicines Bacteria cause diseases

19 Nitrogen wastes are excreted & cycled by bacteria
Nitrogen in Plant & animal protein Ammonia nitrogen Is excreted in urine Bacteria convert Ammonia to usable Nitrate fertilizer

20 Making cheese & yogurt with bacteria

21 Strep bacteria of Rheumatic Fever

22 STD Eubacterium Virus Syphilis X Chlamydeous Gonorrhea x Herpes HIV Aids (death) no By common diseases When the immune system fails Cold Flu Strep throat

23 ?Life on Mars?

24 NASA/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc.
This meteorite was probably blasted off of the surface of the planet Mars about 16 million years ago by an impact with an asteroid and travelled through space to the earth, where it landed on Antarctica about 13,000 years ago. Some scientists believe that the rod-shaped structures across the top and center of this image may be tiny fossilized bacteria. Many other scientists believe that the structures were formed by processes other than life. NASA/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Martian Meteorite ALH84001," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

25 Bacteria cultures: Inoculate = to place
Agar = culture medium (nutrients) One colony (circle)= billions of bacteria A colony begins from one bacterium Incubate at 37oC= body temperature DO NOT OPEN THE PLATES AFTER INCUBATION!

26 Bactericide test strip:
Kills germs! Versus Bactericide? Antibiotic? Mouth wash Neosporin Cleaning agents 2. Your choice 3. Your choice 4. Saliva 5. Saliva plus “Bactericide” Plate 1 = control at my desk

27 Summary Questions: 7. Classified by shape: a. round = cocci
6. View under higher magnification with stains for specific types of bacteria 7. Classified by shape: a. round = cocci b. rods = bacilli c. spiral = spirilli

28 Genetic Engineering of Insulin

29 Restriction Enzymes:Made by some Bacteria

30 Warts are a skin virus!

31 Plant peach virus

32 Polio virus

33 Herpes mouth virus:

34 Rabies Virus

35 Hepatitis B virus (Liver)

36 Virus structure: Protein Coat DNA or RNA for replication
Adsorb-tion site Host specific

37 HIV virus structure:

38 Cow pox vaccination 1749 Acquired Immunization
Artificial injection of a small amount of virus Body’s immune response makes antibodies

39 Chicken Pox Virus

40 Viral Replication:

41 Bacteriophage Bacteria “eating” virus
Virus uses the bacteria as a host For Viral replication

42 Lytic Cycle (Replication) of a Virus - “AVIRAL”
Viral DNA Adsorption of virus onto the host 5.Lysis of Host cell Membrane & release Of virus 4. Assembly of protein coat 2. Insertion of Virus DNA into host cell

43 Transduction: Viral DNA becomes inserted
Into the Bacteria DNA (1/100,000)

44 HIV Virus

45 HIV virus infects T-cells
HIV virus Weakens the immune system AIDS patients die of “common” diseases when T cell (WBC) count falls

46 AIDS = break down of the immune system & death due to common diseases versus death by AIDS virus

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