Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Recognizing the 4 main classes of organic molecules."— Presentation transcript:
Organic Chemistry Recognizing the 4 main classes of organic molecules.
Organic Compounds An organic compound is any compound that contains atoms of the element carbon. Carbon has 2 electrons in its 1 st energy level and 4 electrons in its 2 nd energy level.
Carbon Carbons 4 valence electrons form covalent bonds with other carbon atoms, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Carbon can share one electron in a single bond, two electrons in a double bond, and even three electrons (triple bond not shown)
Isomers Isomers Butane has the chemical formula C 4 H 10. Chemical formulas describe the type and number of atoms. Structural formulas describe the type, number and position of atoms. Butanes structural formula is seen below. Isomers have the same chemical formula, but different structural formulas.
Monosaccharide Here are 3 examples of a monosaccharide A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate. These 3 elements are also isomers. They all have the chemical formula C 6 H 12 O 6. The C:H:O ratio for a monosaccharide is 1:2:1.
Glucose: Chain and Ring Glucose (and other monosaccharide) chains can bend to form a ring.
Disaccharide and Polysaccharide Disaccharide and Polysaccharide One monosaccharide can join with another monosaccharide to create a disaccharide like sucrose. A polysaccharide like cellulose (on the right) is many monosaccharides linked together.
Glycerol and Fats Glycerol is a key component to many lipids. Fat, or triglycerol, forms when a glycerol head connects with three fatty acid tails.
Saturated and Unsaturated Fats Fatty acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats contain only single bonds between carbons. Unsaturated fats contain at least one double bond between carbons.
Proteins and Amino Acids Proteins are the third major family of organic compounds. Proteins are made by linking amino acids together. The side chain is a variable group. There are 20 different variable groups that make 20 different types of amino acid.
Peptide Bonds and Polymers The bond linking two amino acids together is called a peptide bond. Protein chains may contain hundreds, even thousands, of amino acids. These long chains of organic molecules are called polymers.
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are the final class of organic compound. Nucleic acids are composed of individual nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.