Presentation on theme: "Technology and Academic Integrity A Guide for Teachers By J. Speed Farris."— Presentation transcript:
Technology and Academic Integrity A Guide for Teachers By J. Speed Farris
Needs Assessment A certain number of students, in almost any learning environment, are going to cheat. Recent technology provides easier and more effective methods of cheating. Teachers generally do not have the time or inclination to research dishonest applications of technology. As a result, they are often unprepared to detect or prevent it in their classrooms.
Originality is the art of concealing your sources. Benjamin Franklin
A Perspective on Cheating To some students, cheating is not about values at all; it's about power. Some people, they argue, have the advantage of well-connected families; some are naturally bright; others get ahead through cheating. In these students' minds, all means are morally equivalent, according to Gary Pavela, author of Code of Academic Honesty, which has been adopted by several universities. For these young people, Pavela observes, "Concepts like 'morality,' 'virtue,' and 'truth' have no meaning except to disguise and facilitate the use of power by those who have it, or seek it."
What is Cheating? 1. Cheating intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids in any academic exercise. The term academic exercise includes all forms of work submitted for credit or hours. Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
What is Cheating? 2. Fabrication intentional and unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise. 3. Plagiarism deliberate adoption or reproduction of ideas or words or statements of another person as ones own without acknowledgement. Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
What is Cheating? 4. Facilitating academic dishonesty intentionally or knowingly helping or attempting to help another (to cheat). Pavela (1978) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
What is Cheating? In their book, Academic DishonestyAn Educators Guide, Whitley and Keith-Spiegel add three more categories: 5. Misrepresentation Consists of providing false information to an instructor concerning an academic exercise. 6. Failure to contribute to a collaborative project Involves not doing ones fair share. 7. Sabotage Consists of actions that prevent others from completing their work. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
How big of a problem is it? The research indicates that almost everyone has cheated at one time or another, and some surveys reveal more than 90% of students polled admitted to cheating. Cheating seems to peak in high school, and slowly declines in post-secondary education. However, it is ubiquitous at all levels. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Social Consequences It is a hole in the moral ozone. Cheating is habit-forming. It becomes a way to cope with any situation where we want something we havent earned or shouldnt have. -Michael Josephson, Founder and President of the Character Counts! Coaltion and the Josephson Institute Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Social Consequences Cheating undermines integrity and fairness at all levels, and it leads to weak life performance. It should concern every citizen of this country. -Nancy Cole, former president of Educational Testing Service (ETS) Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
While the problems of cheating and plagiarism in the Information Age may appear self-evident, there are those who failed to see it as a threat at all. Some would argue that plagiarism is for the most part a victimless crime, where a person is only cheating him- or herself of an education (Weinstein and Dobkin, 2000). Ultimately, though, the presumed effect of cheating is the failure to learn. One might reasonably ask, What if my surgeon cheated his way through medical school? The implications of an unqualified doctor performing complicated surgery or a dishonest Supreme Court justice presiding over a nation-shaping decision are, by themselves, reason enough to condemn the process of academic dishonesty. Social Consequences
Your Perception-Where are you? Ambivalent-----------------------------Control at all Costs Dont ask dont tell-------------------Seek and Destroy Naïve--------------------------------------Paranoid Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Responsibility-Where are you? |--------------------------|---------------------------| Students who cheat are only hurting themselves. It is not my job to teach ethics. Cheating must be stopped at all costs and it is my job to make sure it doesnt happen in my class. I do what I can but the rest is up to the students, administration, and society. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Where are you? Your feelings about cheating will directly influence how much time and effort you spend: Preventing cheating Detecting cheating Reporting cheating and following through with disciplinary measures. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Overall, the evidence suggests that students tend to cheat less often when: Classes are smaller Classroom conditions (both physical and instructional) are established that are conducive to learning Instruction, assignments, and tests are clear, well-designed, meaningful, and relevant Detecting and Preventing Classroom Cheating Promoting Integrity in Assessment Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Preventing Cheating 1. Educate yourself and your students on cheating and the consequences of cheating. Quiz them! Have students define cheating and plagiarism in a first week course review quiz. Discuss! Hold an introductory discussion. Provide scenarios of different ways to cheat and their respective consequences. Remind throughout the semester and before major assessments. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Preventing Cheating 2. Decrease your students motivation to cheat. Assign relevant work, not just busy work, and explain why you believe the assignment is important and what they will gain from it. Refrain from only using high stakes testing. Define expectations for the assessment. Align test items with course content and concentrate on the concepts that were emphasized during instruction. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Preventing Cheating 3. Give your learners the tools they need to fully prepare for the assessment. Provide opportunities for practice to further prepare learners for the real test. Give study guides or at least an outline of what will be tested. Be realistic in your expectations. Challenge your students, but make sure you have given them the tools to succeed. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Preventing Cheating 4. Model integrity Lead by example by quoting your sources and giving credit where credit is due. Do what you say youre going to do. Let each learner know that you are there to help them learn. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Written Assignments Model and expect proven writing processes. Give examples and non examples for the expected end-product, even for essay questions. Use plagiarism detection sites/tools for prevention (not as a trap). Assign specific (rather than general) topics. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Multiple Choice Assessments Use randomization of questions Use randomization of answer choices Larger pools are better Assess often Use a combination of self assessment, formative assessment, and summative assessment throughout the course. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Alternative Assessments Presentations, individual or group Portfolios Interviews (via chat sessions or private discussions) Role playing activities Journals, blogs, or wikis Case studies Storyboards Soundtracks Performances… Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Mix it up! Providing a nice mix of course specific traditional assessment with alternative assessment is going to help ensure that no one can cheat through the entire course. Adapted from AliveTek, Inc.
Academic Dishonesty Types of Cheating Old Fashioned methods Cheat Sheets, etc. Using Technology Cell Phones, Internet, etc. Detection and Prevention Student Education
Academic Dishonesty Old-Fashioned Methods: Copying from other students, using cheat sheets, paraphrasing / plagiarizing from books, looking in the garbage for carbon copies of tests…
Cheat Sheets Hand Written Cheat Sheets: Relatively small amount of available information Relatively small amount of available information Often Illegible Often Illegible Difficult to conceal Difficult to conceal
Hiding Cheat Sheets A students clothing can provide numerous hiding places.
Some Indications of Cheating: Books / notes on floor, electronics, covered eyes, roving eyes, eye contact, postures of concealment.
Academic Dishonesty Technology-Based Methods: High resolution cheat sheets, USB data theft, cell / camera phones, iPods, Internet cheat sites…
High resolution printers can provide a significant increase in available information. Clear water or soda bottles offer magnification, while opaque sodas hide evidence (cheater takes a slow sip in order to catch a glimpse of the answers).
The packaging of ordinary products like gum or breath mints can be modified to serve as a cheat sheet. Templates (at left) can be made with the help of a scanner, photo-editing software, and a high resolution color printer. Cheat Sheets and Technology
Cellular/Camera Phones Risks: Photography of class materials, silent text messaging during exams, and even web access in some models.
Media Storage Devices Small, handheld devices such as flash drives, iPods, cellular phones, programmable calculators, and PDAs offer a wide range of possibilities for academic dishonesty. USB capable devices, such as flash drives (left) and iPods (bottom left), can be plugged into teachers computers in order to copy and store up to 40GB of data. Others can be used to access previously loaded data or even the Internet directly from class. Also, be careful about allowing flash drives access to your computer; some carry student-loaded viruses.
Keystroke Logging Even passwords offer little protection against such technology as the keystroke logger. This device can be surreptitiously connected between a keyboard cable and PC to monitor and record all keyed entries. Once analyzed with its proprietary software, a keystroke logger can easily be used to identify passwords and other private data.
High-Frequency Ring Tones High-frequency ring tones can be used by students to send and receive telephone calls during class. It works on the principle that most adults over the age of thirty lose their ability to hear high frequency sounds. Currently, the ring tone accomplishes nothing more than the vibrate function on a typical cellular phone can already do.
Internet Cheat Sites Many websites offer cheating advice to students. The following suggestions were found on www.blurofinsanity.com: 1. Write on hands, in between fingers. (well known, but it often works) 2. Write answers on an index card attached to a rubber band that runs up your sleeve. When the Instructor or Proctor gets suspicious, let go and the crib sheet slides up your sleeve and out of sight. This can be tricky but provides an almost infallible way not to get caught. 3. Come in at Night and write on your desk before the test. Make sure you get this desk! This is effective if the desks in the room are already graffitied (most are).
Internet Cheat Sites Many websites offer cheating advice to students. The following suggestions were found on www.blurofinsanity.com: 4. Write on those Wooden Octagon Pencils with a nail or something sharp. Write down the side so when you hold the pencil you can actually read it while you write. It makes it hard for teachers to read, because you have to be in the right light. 5. Gum Wrapper (for additional space for the method above, or if you are to lazy to make full wrapper). [sic] a. Get a pack of gum, Wrigley's, etc. b. Open up a piece. c. Write cheat notes inside the wrapper. d. Refold the gum. e. During test, eat a piece of gum f. Nonchalantly look at inside of wrapper.
Online Advice to Cheaters A CHEATING TESTIMONIAL by Eric Price Since we are attached to the Internet, we can assume every one of us has access to a computer, a word processor, and a printer. While I recommend a laser or high quality ink jet, even a dot matrix will do in a pinch. Now I know that most of us are too lazy to do this, but to make really killer cheat sheets, just use your word processor to type out your definitions, pictures, whatever. Then, when you are all done, shrink the entire document down to 4 point (about the smallest you can still read without a magnifying glass) set the margins to make a sheet small enough to fit in the palm of your hand. I once put entire 5 page essay on crib sheet for a college History exam. Got a perfect grade. Recommend you experiment ahead of time to find that perfect size. Got too much information for one small page? Fold it OR make separate sheets, separated by subject, and stash them in your pockets, etc. These tiny sheets are great in that they may be eaten (been there done that) if the prof gets too close or becomes suspicious. If you think these don't work then how do you explain my 3.95+ GPA in my junior year of college. (Source: www.blurofinsanity.com)
Internet Cheating A search for free essays on Google.com will yield 77,300,000 results in 0.07 seconds.
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Pre-Written Essays Pre-Written essays are available at varying levels of competence. For example, a C student can order a paper with misspellings, poor grammar, and inaccurate interpretations of the literature. Pre-Written essays can often be detected by entering suspicious phrases into search engines such as Google. If the paper is submitted digitally, check the document properties for authorship information.
Internet Paper Mills Custom Essays are more difficult to track. Most custom essay sites will write original essays on demand, making it impossible to detect on web searches.
Internet Paper Mills The best defenses include: Keep writing samples from each student Require draft submissions Ask students to explain their thought processes In-Class Essays!
Plagiarism Prevention Educate teachers about the potential applications of emerging technology. Educate students as to the proper ways of researching and composing an essay. Prohibit the use of privately-owned technology in the classroom.
Google (http://www.google.com) can also be used as a detection tool to track down Internet plagiarism. Its advanced search engine capabilities are conducive to locating key phrases that may appear in students' papers. Perform an exact phrase search on a phrase from a suspect part of the paper using the Advanced Search. Plagiarism Detection
Step 1: On Google's main page, choose Advanced Search Step 2: Select a distinctive phrase from a suspect paper and type in the "with the exact phrase" search box. Click on "Google Search."
Tracking Down Plagiarism from Article Databases InfoTrac and EBSCOhost allow you to search for words or phrases within the full-text of articles. You can track down plagiarized papers, paragraphs and particular sentences. Search for a distinctive phrase using the full-text search option.
InfoTrac Step 1: Select Keyword search or Relevance search Step 2: Enter in the search box a distinctive phrase from a suspect paper Step 3: Select the radio button next to "in entire article content" and click on "Search"
EBSCOhost Step 1: Select a distinctive phrase or sentence from a suspect paper, and type it the search box Step 2: Select "Also search within the full trext of the articles" Step 3: Click on "Search"
Sample: The Philosophy Of Friedrich Nietzsche Sometimes philosophy is called "timeless," implying that it's lessons are of value to any generation. This may be hard to see in Nietzsche's work; but, we are assured that it was appropriate thought for his time. However, even Nietzsche's critics admit that his words hold an undeniable truth, as hard as it is to accept. Perhaps this is why his work is timeless, and has survived 150 years in print. Christianity "God is Dead!" announced Zarathustra (better known as Zoroaster), in Neitzsche's proudest book, Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883- 1885). Unlike many philosophers, Nietzsche never tried to prove or disprove the existence of God, just that belief in God can create sickness; and to convince that highest achievements in human life depend on elimination of God. Whether God existed had no relevance in his goal. Proclamation of the death of God was a fundamental ingredient in the revaluation of values Nietzsche advocated. PracticePractice http://www.google.com/
Sample Essay Results: Plagiarized This is a popular essay. It can be found on all of the following websites, and many more as well. It is clear that this student did nothing more than copy an existing essay in its entirety and submit it to his or her teacher. One indication of plagiarism is the inclusion of words in the body of the essay that were clearly intended to be headers. 1.http://www.allfreeessays.com/student/Nietzsche_Philosophy.html 2.http://www.studyworld.com/newsite/reportessay/Biography/HistoricalFigures %5CNietzsche_Philosophy.htm 3.http://appraisercentral.com/research/Frederick%20Nietzsche.htm 4.http://www.monsteressays.com/search.cgi?query=christianity&start=80 5.http://www.termpapersmadeeasy.com/Papers%203_27/Philosophy/Frederick% 20Nietzsche.htm 6.http://www.digitaltermpapers.com/c6739.htm
Review A certain number of students, in almost any learning environment, are going to cheat. Recent technology provides easier and more effective methods of cheating. Teachers can and should learn the dishonest applications of technology. Focus on a combination of education, prevention, and consistent consequences.
What is plagiarism? (And why you should care!) Adapted from a document created by Montgomery School District, PA http://mciu.org/~spjvweb/plagiarism.ppt Teaching Tool
Definition: Plagiarism is the act of presenting the words, ideas, images, sounds, or the creative expression of others as your own.
How serious is the problem? 72% admitted to serious cheating on written assignments. Over half of the students admitted they have engaged in some level of plagiarism on written assignments using the Internet. A study of almost 4,500 students at 25 schools, suggests cheating is... a significant problem in high school - 74% of the respondents admitted to one or more instances of serious test cheating and 72% admitted to serious cheating on written assignments. Over half of the students admitted they have engaged in some level of plagiarism on written assignments using the Internet. Based on the research of Donald L. McCabe, Rutgers University Source: CIA Research. Center for Academic Integrity, Duke University, 2003 http://academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp
Students. If: you have included the words and ideas of others in your work that you neglected to cite, you have had help you wouldnt want your teacher to know about,
Two types of plagiarism: Intentional Copying a friends work Buying or borrowing papers Cutting and pasting blocks of text from electronic sources without documenting Media borrowingwithout documentation Web publishing without permissions of creators Unintentional Careless paraphrasing Poor documentation Quoting excessively Failure to use your own voice
Excuses Its okay if I dont get caught! I was too busy to write that paper! (Job, big game, too much homework!) My teachers expect too much! Ive got to get into Harvard! My parents expect As! This assignment was BORING! Everyone does it!
Rationale for academic integrity (as if it were necessary!) When you copy you cheat yourself. You limit your own learning. The consequences are not worth the risks! It is only right to give credit to authors whose ideas you use Citing gives authority to the information you present Citing makes it possible for your readers to locate your source Education is not an us vs. them game! Its about learning to learn! Cheating is unethical behavior Is your academic reputation valuable to you?
Real life consequences: Damaged the reputation of two prominent historians, Stephen Ambrose and Doris Kearns Goodwin, Kearns left television position and stepped down as Pulitzer Prize judge for lifting 50 passages for her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (Lewis) Senator Joseph Biden dropped his 1987 campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination. (Sabato) Copied in law school and borrowed from campaign speeches of Robert Kennedy Boston Globe journalist Mike Barnicle forced to resign for plagiarism in his columns (Boston Columnist...) Probe of plagiarism at UVA--45 students dismissed, 3 graduate degrees revoked CNN Article AP. 26 Nov. 2001 Channel One Article AP. 27 Nov. 2002
Consequences (contd) New York Times senior reporter Jayson Blair forced to resign after being accused of plagiarism and fraud. The newspaper said at least 36 of the 73 articles he had written had problems with accuracy, calling the deception a "low point" in the newspaper's history. New York Times Exposes Fraud of Own Reporter. ABC News Online. 12 May, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/newshour_index.html
Consequences (contd) A New Jersey valedictorian was denied her seat as a Harvard freshman when it was discovered she plagiarized in a local newspaper.
Possible school consequences: 0 on the assignment Parent notification Referral to administrators Suspension or dismissal from school activities-- sports and extracurricular Note on student record Loss of reputation among the school community
Is this important? What if: Your architect cheated his way through math class. Will your new home be safe? Your lawyer paid for a copy of the bar exam to study. Will the contract she wrote for you stand up in court? The accountant who does your taxes hired someone to write his papers and paid a stand-in to take his major tests? Does he know enough to complete your tax forms properly? (Lathrop and Foss 87)
Nope! Facts that are widely known, or Information or judgments considered common knowledge Do NOT have to be documented. Hooray for common knowledge!
Examples of common knowledge John Adams was our second president The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 If you see a fact in three or more sources, and you are fairly certain your readers already know this information, it is likely to be common knowledge. But when in doubt, cite!
No need to document when: You are discussing your own experiences, observations, or reactions Compiling the results of original research, from science experiments, etc. You are using common knowledge
Whats the big deal? If I change a few words, Im okay, right? Wrong! Paraphrasing original ideas without documenting your source, is plagiarism too!
You can borrow from the works of others in your own work!
Use these three strategies: Quoting Paraphrasing Summarizing To blend source materials in with your own, making sure your own voice is heard.
Quoting Quotations are the exact words of an author, copied directly from a source, word for word. Quotations must be cited! Use quotations when: You want to add the power of an authors words to support your argument You want to disagree with an authors argument You want to highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages You are comparing and contrasting specific points of view You want to note the important research that precedes your own Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza
Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means rephrasing the words of an author, putting his/her thoughts in your own words. When you paraphrase, you rework the sources ideas, words, phrases, and sentence structures with your own. Like quotations, paraphrased material must be followed with in-text documentation and cited on your Works-Cited page. Paraphrase when: You plan to use information on your note cards and wish to avoid plagiarizing You want to avoid overusing quotations You want to use your own voice to present information Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza
Summarizing Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) of one or several writers into your own words, including only the main point(s). Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. Again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to their original sources. Summarize when: You want to establish background or offer an overview of a topic You want to describe knowledge (from several sources) about a topic You want to determine the main ideas of a single source Carol Rohrbach and Joyce Valenza
As you take notes: Include any direct quotes or unique phrases in quotation marks or mark with a big Q and make sure the speakers / writers name is identified. Make sure you note a paraphrase with the writers name and mark it with a big P Include page numbers and source references so you can go back and check for accuracy as you write.
In-text / in-project MLA documentation Purpose--to give immediate source information without interrupting the flow of paper or project. The academic world takes in-text documentation seriously. Inaccurate documentation is as serious as having no documentation at all. Brief information in in-text documentation should match full source information in Works Cited
Use in-text / in-project documentation when: You use an original idea from one of your sources, whether you quote or paraphrase it You summarize original ideas from one of your sources You use factual information that is not common knowledge (Cite to be safe.) You quote directly from a source You use a date or fact that might be disputed
How do I cite using MLA style ? Parenthetical citations are usually placed at the end of a sentence, before the period, but they may be placed in the middle of sentence Cite the author's last name and the page number In the absence of an author, cite the title and the page number If you are using more than one book by the same author, list the last name, comma, the title, and the page If you identify the author and title in the text, just list the page number
But, what about the Web? When citing a Web source in-text, you are not likely to have page numbers. Just include the first part of the entry. (Valenza) or (Plagiarism and the Web)
Typical example: Slightly more than 73% of Happy High School students reported plagiarizing papers sometime in their high school careers. (Smith 203)
A list of paper mills http://www.coastal.edu/library/mills2.htm
Preventing plagiarism Set a climate where academic integrity is valued Design thoughtful assignments Set up checkpoints throughout the process: drafts, outlines, organizers, preliminary works cited Keep portfolios of student writing Vary assignments and topic suggestions each semester Describe the degree to which collaboration is acceptable to your students Require an annotated bibliography Shorter papers are okay
Preventing Plagiarism (contd) Make sure students understand what plagiarism is and how you expect them to document Make sure students know how seriously you personally take plagiarism as a violation of your trust and school and class rules of conduct. Make sure you are aware of how students plagiarize Make sure students know that you check for plagiarism
Prevention Ask for outlines and drafts Have students present research orally Ask the student under suspicion to read one or two difficult paragraphs and explain Have students present and defend their research orally Ask for photocopies of best sources (Lathrop and Foss 163-166)
Prevention Require specific components Require drafts prior to due dates Require oral defense or presentation Include annotated bibliography Require up-to-date references Require a meta-learning essay in class after papers have been submitted (Lathrop and Foss 194-195)
When you suspect plagiarism Ask librarian for help (other sources beyond free web) Pick an unusual string of words and search on Google, All the Web, AltaVista five or six words in quotation marks Ask the student why certain phrases or words were used, or to identify location of a specific fact. Check to see if all citations are listed in Works Cited Check for inconsistencies in font, bibliographic format, text size, layout, and question them Does the paper not exactly match the assignment? Chat with other teachers about the students work (Lathrop and Foss 163166, 194-195)
When you suspect plagiarism 2 Ask to see drafts, outlines, etc. (Ask students to save them in advance!) Compare to other student work. Look for vocabulary, variation in sentence length, etc. Make a copy of a section, cut it into paragraphs and ask student to reassemble Discuss the paper. Ask student to defend opinions. Why he or she chose that specific evidence Ask student to read aloud paragraphs with unusual vocabulary or scholarly terms. Note fluency. Have student explain or paraphrase Does writing shift styles, especially in the middle? Ask where some items in the bibliography were located Ask student to relocate sources Ask why no recent sources were cited (Lathrop and Foss 163166)
Works Cited Boston Columnist Resigns Amid New Plagiarism Charges. CNN.com 19 Aug. 1998 3 March 2003 Fain, Margaret. Internet Paper Mills. Kimbal Library. 12 Feb. 2003. Lathrop, Ann and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2000. Lewis, Mark. Doris Kearns Goodwin And The Credibility Gap. Forbes.com 2 Feb. 2002. New York Times Exposes Fraud of own Reporter. ABC News Online. 12 May, 2003. Sabato, Larry J. Joseph Biden's Plagiarism; Michael Dukakis's 'Attack Video' – 1988. Washington Post Online. 1998. 3 March 2002.