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Scientific Classification Systems Why a Scientific Classification System? Ambiguity of terms Latin dead language Categorization of relationships: 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific Classification Systems Why a Scientific Classification System? Ambiguity of terms Latin dead language Categorization of relationships: 1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Scientific Classification Systems

3 Why a Scientific Classification System? Ambiguity of terms Latin dead language Categorization of relationships: 1. Evolutionary 2. Structural 3. Biochemical (NOT habitat)

4 7 Classification Groups: Kingdom (most inclusive) Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (most specific) K ing P hillip C ame O ver F rom G reece S inging

5 5 Major Kingdoms: 1. Monera 2. Protista 3. Fungi 4. Planta 5. Animalia 1 cell, prokaryotes 1 cell, eukaryotes & algae Multicelled, absorptive feeders Muticelled, autotrophs Muticelled heterotrophs

6 Which is the most difficult to assign? Species: Most specific Successful interbreeding Fertile offspring Donkey + Horse= Mule (infertile)

7 Which group has the largest # organisms? Kingdom: Cell types ProkaryotesE ukaryotes Cell number Nutrition Structures

8 Plant Kingdom

9 Animal Kingdom

10 Scientific Name: Latin Italics or underlined Genus species Homo sapien

11 Classification Criteria : Biochemistry Behavior Hair Color Genetic System Evol. History Nutrition Molecular Make-up Most (DNA) Not very Most Not very

12 Similar Categories: Dolphin Man Fish Whale Bat

13 Similar Categories : Grasshopper Mosquito Spider Butterfly

14 Did Man evolve from Apes? No!! Similar ancestor Both: Animalia Cordata Mammalia Primates Hommindes

15 The Piltdown Man was accepted as an important archaeological find in 1912 because it seemed to bridge the evolutionary gap between apes and man. It was not until 1953 that, with the help of fluorine dating tests, the bones were determined to be the jaw of an orangutan with the skull of a man, both from the Middle Ages. Here, Alvan Marston explains that it is not a missing evolutionary link, but a most elaborate hoax. Hulton Deutsch "Uncovering the Piltdown Hoax," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

16 Mammals arise from Theraapsids

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18 Chimpanzees: distant relatives

19 Walking upright:

20 Unlike their ape ancestors, early humans had anatomical adaptations for upright walking. The early human species Australopithecus afarensis had a wide and short pelvis and femurs (upper leg bones) that angled inward toward the knees. These adaptations provided side-to-side balance and a fulcrum for the hip muscles to hold the torso erect. In contrast, apes, such as chimpanzees, have a tall and narrow pelvis from which the femurs extend straight down. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. "Evolution of Upright Walking," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

21 Lemurs: distant relatives

22 The ruffed lemur lives in the eastern rain forests of Madagascar. The lemurs and their relatives are believed to have evolved in isolation from the monkeys and apes after Africa became separated from Madagascar over 50 million years ago. Since the arrival of humans on Madagascar over 2000 years ago, at least 14 species of lemurs are believed to have become extinct. Jean P. Varin/Jacana/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Ruffed Lemur," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

23 Piltdown hoax

24 When Charles Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871, he challenged the fundamental beliefs of most people by asserting that humans and apes had evolved from a common ancestor. Many critics of Darwin misunderstood his theory to mean that people had descended directly from apes. This caricature of Charles Darwin as an ape appeared in the London Sketch Book in Mary Evans Picture Library/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Caricature of Charles Darwin," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

25 Homologous or Analogous Stuctures?

26 Homologous Structures: Shark/Dolphin fin Seal flipper/Fish fin Fish tail/Whale fluke Bat wing/Cat limb Bird/Insect wing Bird wing/reptile limb Seal flipper/human arm Dog limb/whale flipper No (cartilage/rays) No (bones/rays) Yes (bones/bones) Yes (bones/no bones) Yes(bones/bones) Yes(mammal bones)

27 Structures that are similar due to evolutionary origin, such as the forearm bones of humans, birds, porpoises, and elephants, are called homologous. Structures that evolve separately to perform a similar function are analogous. The wings of birds, bats, and insects, for example, have different embryological origins but are all designed for flight. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. "Analogous and Homologous Structures," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

28 Family or Genus Relations? Family: Less closely related Larger group Genus: More closely related Precedes species= interbreeding Family:Felidae Lions, tigers, leopards house cats,cheetahs, ocelots Genus: Panthera Leopards (pardus) Lion (leo) Tigers (tigris)

29 Feline Family Members:

30 Most authorities agree that the domestic cat descended from the Caffre cat, a small breed of African wildcat. The Caffre cat was domesticated in ancient Egypt, possibly as early as 2500 BC. G. G. Dimijian/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Caffre," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

31 Genus: Panthera (Lions &Tigers)

32 Classification by characteristics: Fossil Skulls DNA Sequences Hair Samples Pictures Most Useful Least

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