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Scientific Classification Systems
Why a Scientific Classification System?Ambiguity of terms Latin “dead language” Categorization of relationships: Evolutionary Structural Biochemical (NOT habitat)
7 Classification Groups:King Phillip Came Over From Greece Singing Kingdom (most inclusive) Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (most specific)
5 Major Kingdoms: Monera Protista Fungi Planta Animalia1 cell, prokaryotes 1 cell, eukaryotes & algae Multicelled, absorptive feeders Muticelled, autotrophs Muticelled heterotrophs
Which is the most difficult to assign?Species: Most specific Successful interbreeding Fertile offspring Donkey + Horse= Mule (infertile)
Which group has the largest # organisms?Kingdom: Cell types ProkaryotesEukaryotes Cell number Nutrition Structures
Scientific Name: Latin Italics or underlined Genus species Homo sapien
Classification Criteria:Biochemistry Behavior Hair Color Genetic System Evol. History Nutrition Molecular Make-up Most (DNA) Not very Most
Similar Categories: Dolphin Man Fish Whale Bat
Similar Categories: Grasshopper Mosquito Spider Butterfly
Did Man evolve from Apes?No!! Similar ancestor Both: Animalia Cordata Mammalia Primates Hommindes
The Piltdown Man was accepted as an important archaeological find in because it seemed to bridge the evolutionary gap between apes and man. It was not until 1953 that, with the help of fluorine dating tests, the bones were determined to be the jaw of an orangutan with the skull of a man, both from the Middle Ages. Here, Alvan Marston explains that it is not a missing evolutionary link, but a “most elaborate hoax.” Hulton Deutsch "Uncovering the Piltdown Hoax," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Mammals arise from Theraapsids
Chimpanzees: distant relatives
Unlike their ape ancestors, early humans had anatomical adaptations for upright walking. The early human species Australopithecus afarensis had a wide and short pelvis and femurs (upper leg bones) that angled inward toward the knees. These adaptations provided side-to-side balance and a fulcrum for the hip muscles to hold the torso erect. In contrast, apes, such as chimpanzees, have a tall and narrow pelvis from which the femurs extend straight down. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. "Evolution of Upright Walking," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Lemurs: distant relatives
The ruffed lemur lives in the eastern rain forests of MadagascarThe ruffed lemur lives in the eastern rain forests of Madagascar. The lemurs and their relatives are believed to have evolved in isolation from the monkeys and apes after Africa became separated from Madagascar over 50 million years ago. Since the arrival of humans on Madagascar over 2000 years ago, at least 14 species of lemurs are believed to have become extinct. Jean P. Varin/Jacana/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Ruffed Lemur," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Mary Evans Picture Library/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc.When Charles Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871, he challenged the fundamental beliefs of most people by asserting that humans and apes had evolved from a common ancestor. Many critics of Darwin misunderstood his theory to mean that people had descended directly from apes. This caricature of Charles Darwin as an ape appeared in the London Sketch Book in 1874. Mary Evans Picture Library/Science Source/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Caricature of Charles Darwin," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Homologous or Analogous Stuctures?
Homologous Structures:No (cartilage/rays) No (bones/rays) Yes (bones/bones) Yes (bones/no bones) Yes(bones/bones) Yes(mammal bones) Shark/Dolphin fin Seal flipper/Fish fin Fish tail/Whale fluke Bat wing/Cat limb Bird/Insect wing Bird wing/reptile limb Seal flipper/human arm Dog limb/whale flipper
Structures that are similar due to evolutionary origin, such as the forearm bones of humans, birds, porpoises, and elephants, are called homologous. Structures that evolve separately to perform a similar function are analogous. The wings of birds, bats, and insects, for example, have different embryological origins but are all designed for flight. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. "Analogous and Homologous Structures," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Family or Genus Relations?Family:Felidae Lions, tigers, leopards house cats,cheetahs, ocelots Genus: Panthera Leopards (pardus) Lion (leo) Tigers (tigris) Family: Less closely related Larger group Genus: More closely related Precedes species= interbreeding
Feline Family Members:
G. G. Dimijian/Photo Researchers, Inc.Most authorities agree that the domestic cat descended from the Caffre cat, a small breed of African wildcat. The Caffre cat was domesticated in ancient Egypt, possibly as early as BC. G. G. Dimijian/Photo Researchers, Inc. "Caffre," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Genus: Panthera (Lions &Tigers)
Classification by characteristics:Fossil Skulls DNA Sequences Hair Samples Pictures Most Useful Least
Human Classification Animal Kingdom Cordate Phylum Mammal Class
Name ________________________ Date ______________ Pd _____
Chapter 34 Review Humans Charles Page High School Dr. Stephen L. Cotton.
Georgia Performance Standards:
Chapter 25/26 Taxonomy and Biodiversity Evolutionary biology The major goal of evolutionary biology is to reconstruct the history of life on earth ►Process:
Classifying the Diversity of Life – Systematics: Study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and their relationships – Taxonomy:
According to the endosymbiotic theory where did early eukaryotes come from? A.The eukaryotic cells were trapped in meteorites and then released upon.
The Tree of Life: What is the Point? Big Question Why Do We Classify Organisms?
Classification of Living Things Chapter 7. Why There is a Need for Classifying There are well over 2 million different types of organisms known.
Chapter 14 Lesson 2 Classifying Species. Classification grouping objects or organisms based on similarities grouping objects or organisms based on similarities.
The Origin and Classification of Life Classification and Evolution of Organisms.
Taxonomy The classification of living things…. There may be over 100 million different living things on Earth. Less than 2 million have been classified.
Classification. Taxonomy Science of grouping organisms according to their presumed natural relationships Artificial May change with new evidence.
HISTORY OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Unit 4 1. Chapter 16 Primate Evolution 2.
Tree of Life Chapter 26.
The Theory of Evolution
Chapter 26 – Phylogeny & the Tree of Life
Classification of Living Things
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