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Population Geography WG.5, 6, 10a, 11a-c. What factors influence population distribution? Environmental factors-- Environmental factors-- What type of.

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Presentation on theme: "Population Geography WG.5, 6, 10a, 11a-c. What factors influence population distribution? Environmental factors-- Environmental factors-- What type of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Population Geography WG.5, 6, 10a, 11a-c

2 What factors influence population distribution? Environmental factors-- Environmental factors-- What type of natural resources are in the area? Does it have oil, or arable land or access to water? What type of natural resources are in the area? Does it have oil, or arable land or access to water? What is the climate like? What is the climate like? Does it have capital resources such as transportation and technology? Does it have capital resources such as transportation and technology?

3 Economic factors-- Economic factors-- What is the economic development like? What is the economic development like? What are the resources like? What are the resources like? Political factors-- Political factors-- What is the government policy? What is the government policy? Are there many conflicts? Are there many conflicts? Is it a rural/urban area? Is it a rural/urban area?

4 What are the characteristics of human populations? What are the characteristics of human populations? Birth and Death rates- Birth and Death rates- How many people per 1000 are born or die in a year? How many people per 1000 are born or die in a year? Age Distribution-- Age Distribution-- How many people are in each age category? How many people are in each age category?

5 Male/Female distribution-- Male/Female distribution-- Are there more males or more females? Why? Are there more males or more females? Why? Life Expectancy-- Life Expectancy-- How old can you expect to live? How old can you expect to live? Infant Mortality-- Infant Mortality-- How many children die before their second birthday? How many children die before their second birthday?

6 Urban /Rural-- Urban /Rural-- Where do most people live? In the city/country? Where do most people live? In the city/country? GDP-- GDP-- Is the countrys GDP high or low? Is the countrys GDP high or low? Ethnicity-- Ethnicity-- Does the population have one dominate ethnicity or many and do they get along? Does the population have one dominate ethnicity or many and do they get along?

7 Language-- Language-- Do the people speak one language or do they have multiple languages? Do the people speak one language or do they have multiple languages? Religion-- Religion-- Do the people share the same religion or do they have multiple ones? Do the people share the same religion or do they have multiple ones? Education-- Education-- Are the people highly educated? Are the people highly educated?

8 What factors influence population growth rates? Does the country have modern medicine and hygiene practices? Does the country have modern medicine and hygiene practices? What is the level of the average education? What is the level of the average education? Is the country industrialized and do the people live in urban areas? Is the country industrialized and do the people live in urban areas?

9 What is the level of economic development? Does the country have a primary, secondary, or tertiary economy? What is the level of economic development? Does the country have a primary, secondary, or tertiary economy? What is the governments policy toward growth? Are there any restrictions? What is the governments policy toward growth? Are there any restrictions? What role do women play in the society? What role do women play in the society?

10 Push factors of immigration Push factors are factors which force people to move. Push factors are factors which force people to move. Overproduction Overproduction religious persecution religious persecution lack of job opportunities lack of job opportunities agricultural decline agricultural decline conflict conflict

11 Political persecution Political persecution Natural hazards--droughts, floods, famines, volcanic eruptions Natural hazards--droughts, floods, famines, volcanic eruptions Limits on personal freedom Limits on personal freedom environmental degradation (decline) environmental degradation (decline)

12 Pull factors of immigration Pull factors attract people to an area Pull factors attract people to an area Religion Religion Economic opportunity Economic opportunity Land availability Land availability Political freedom Political freedom

13 Ethnic and family ties Ethnic and family ties Arable land Arable land

14 What is the impact of migration on regions? Language--multiple languages Language--multiple languages Religion and religious freedom Religion and religious freedom Customs/traditions--exchanged Customs/traditions--exchanged Cultural landscape--diffusion Cultural landscape--diffusion Diffusion--is the spreading of ideas and traits Diffusion--is the spreading of ideas and traits

15 What is some evidence of cultural interaction? The spreading (diffusion) of US culture to other regions of the world The spreading (diffusion) of US culture to other regions of the world popularization of other cultures traditions in the US popularization of other cultures traditions in the US

16 Spatial Divisions as Forces of Conflict and Cooperation Spatial divisions are regions of the Earths surface over which groups of people establish social, economic and political control. Spatial divisions may generate conflict and/or cooperation.

17 Examples of Spatial Divisions Neighborhoods Neighborhoods

18 School districts School districts

19 Cities and Counties Cities and Counties

20 Election Districts Election Districts

21 Regional Districts Regional Districts

22 States States

23 Reasons for Spatial Divisions Reasons for Spatial Divisions Why are spatial divisions necessary at the local and regional levels? 1) Desire for government to be closer to home; 2) need to solve local problems and 3) need to administer resources more efficiently

24 Reasons for Conflict Reasons for Conflict How do spatial systems generate conflict? How do spatial systems generate conflict? 1) Citizens may argue over boundaries; 1) Citizens may argue over boundaries; 2) Citizens may have low tolerance for different cultures; 2) Citizens may have low tolerance for different cultures;

25 3) Citizens may fight/compete over scarce resources and 4) Citizens and/or politicians may try to gain political advantage

26 Political Advantage? Yes, spatial divisions can be created in order to manipulate an electoral area, usually by altering the boundaries. This is known as gerrymandering. This is done to gain an unfair political advantage in an election. Yes, spatial divisions can be created in order to manipulate an electoral area, usually by altering the boundaries. This is known as gerrymandering. This is done to gain an unfair political advantage in an election.

27 Reasons for Cooperation 1) Natural disasters 2) Economic advantages (attracts new businesses) 3) Cultural similaritiesethnic backgrounds 4) Addressing regional issues like waste management, magnet schools and transportation.

28 Urban Development Urbanization, or the growing of cities, was triggered by industrialization. Urbanization, or the growing of cities, was triggered by industrialization. Patterns of urban development occur according to site and situation. Patterns of urban development occur according to site and situation.

29 Site and situation Site and situation are important geographic concepts when studying the growth of cities. Site and situation are important geographic concepts when studying the growth of cities. Site is the actual location of a city. Site is the actual location of a city.

30 Situation is another name for relative locationthe location of a city with respect to other geographic features, regions, resources, and transport routes. Situation is another name for relative locationthe location of a city with respect to other geographic features, regions, resources, and transport routes.

31 Site Harbor Sites: NY City, Alexandria, Egypt; Istanbul Turkey Harbor Sites: NY City, Alexandria, Egypt; Istanbul Turkey Island sites: Paris, Hong Kong, Singapore Island sites: Paris, Hong Kong, Singapore Fall line sites: Richmond, VA Fall line sites: Richmond, VA Confluence sites: Khartoum, Sudan; Pittsburg, PA Confluence sites: Khartoum, Sudan; Pittsburg, PA

32 Hilltop sites: Rome, Athens, Jerusalem Hilltop sites: Rome, Athens, Jerusalem Oasis Sites: Damascus, Syria Oasis Sites: Damascus, Syria Sites where rivers narrow: London, Quebec City Sites where rivers narrow: London, Quebec City

33 Situation IstanbulCommand of straits and land bridge to Europe IstanbulCommand of straits and land bridge to Europe Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Varanasi (Benares), IndiaFocal point of pilgrimage Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Varanasi (Benares), IndiaFocal point of pilgrimage Samarkand, Uzbekistan; Xian, China; Timbuktu, Mali; SingaporeCities that grew up around trade routes Samarkand, Uzbekistan; Xian, China; Timbuktu, Mali; SingaporeCities that grew up around trade routes

34 Capetown, S.AfricaSupply station for ships Capetown, S.AfricaSupply station for ships Omaha, Nebraska; Sacramento, CaliforniaCities that grew up along the U.S. Transcontinental railroad Omaha, Nebraska; Sacramento, CaliforniaCities that grew up along the U.S. Transcontinental railroad Novosibirsk,Vladivostok-Cities that grew up along the Trans- Siberian Railroad Novosibirsk,Vladivostok-Cities that grew up along the Trans- Siberian Railroad

35 Functions of towns and cities Security and defense Security and defense Religious centers Religious centers Trade centers (local and long distance Trade centers (local and long distance Governmental administration Governmental administration Manufacturing centers Manufacturing centers Service centers Service centers

36 Examples of a city changing functions over time Rio de Janeirowas the capital but now is a tourist attraction (Brasilia) Rio de Janeirowas the capital but now is a tourist attraction (Brasilia) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniaearly function was for frontier defense, then shifted to steel manufacturing, and now is the home to many diverse services Pittsburgh, Pennsylvaniaearly function was for frontier defense, then shifted to steel manufacturing, and now is the home to many diverse services

37 New York Cityhas changed from a center of coastal and transatlantic trade to a center for the Great Lakes and Erie canal region to worldwide trade and finances New York Cityhas changed from a center of coastal and transatlantic trade to a center for the Great Lakes and Erie canal region to worldwide trade and finances Mining towns– once the resources were gone, many towns became ghost towns Mining towns– once the resources were gone, many towns became ghost towns

38 What influence does urban areas have on their region and country? They are the home to monuments which help bring pride and develop nation-building. They are the home to monuments which help bring pride and develop nation-building. They are transportation and communication centers. They are transportation and communication centers. They are natural attractions for immigrants. They are natural attractions for immigrants.

39 They are the seed beds for new ideas and technologies. They are the seed beds for new ideas and technologies. Their diversity helps lead to creativity in the arts. Their diversity helps lead to creativity in the arts. Many are the home to major Universities which provide educational opportunities. Many are the home to major Universities which provide educational opportunities.

40 They are the headquarters and regional outposts of major corporations. They are the headquarters and regional outposts of major corporations. The major media outlets have their centers there (newspapers, radio, and television). The major media outlets have their centers there (newspapers, radio, and television).

41 What problems are associated with growth of urban areas? Transportation problems, especially since the automobile. Transportation problems, especially since the automobile. Rich and poor neighborhoods are usually isolated from one another. Rich and poor neighborhoods are usually isolated from one another. As overcrowding occurs, providing essential services (water, sewage, electricity) is a problem. As overcrowding occurs, providing essential services (water, sewage, electricity) is a problem.

42 Air, water, and noise pollution Air, water, and noise pollution Sprawl (spreading) of urban areas takes agricultural land out of production. Sprawl (spreading) of urban areas takes agricultural land out of production. Rapid migration results in shantytowns on the edge of Latin American, Asian, and African cities. Rapid migration results in shantytowns on the edge of Latin American, Asian, and African cities.

43 In developing countries, major cities are more connected to the outside world than to less developed regions in their own countries In developing countries, major cities are more connected to the outside world than to less developed regions in their own countries


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