2What factors influence population distribution? Environmental factors--What type of natural resources are in the area? Does it have oil, or arable land or access to water?What is the climate like?Does it have capital resources such as transportation and technology?
3Economic factors-- Political factors-- What is the economic development like?What are the resources like?Political factors--What is the government policy?Are there many conflicts?Is it a rural/urban area?
4What are the characteristics of human populations? Birth and Death rates-How many people per 1000 are born or die in a year?Age Distribution--How many people are in each age category?
5Male/Female distribution-- Are there more males or more females? Why?Life Expectancy--How old can you expect to live?Infant Mortality--How many children die before their second birthday?
6Urban /Rural-- GDP-- Ethnicity-- Where do most people live? In the city/country?GDP--Is the country’s GDP high or low?Ethnicity--Does the population have one dominate ethnicity or many and do they get along?
7Language--Do the people speak one language or do they have multiple languages?Religion--Do the people share the same religion or do they have multiple ones?Education--Are the people highly educated?
8What factors influence population growth rates? Does the country have modern medicine and hygiene practices?What is the level of the average education?Is the country industrialized and do the people live in urban areas?
9What is the level of economic development What is the level of economic development? Does the country have a primary, secondary, or tertiary economy?What is the government’s policy toward growth? Are there any restrictions?What role do women play in the society?
10Push factors of immigration Push factors are factors which force people to move.Overproductionreligious persecutionlack of job opportunitiesagricultural declineconflict
11Political persecution Natural hazards--droughts, floods, famines, volcanic eruptionsLimits on personal freedomenvironmental degradation (decline)
12Pull factors of immigration Pull factors attract people to an areaReligionEconomic opportunityLand availabilityPolitical freedom
14What is the impact of migration on regions? Language--multiple languagesReligion and religious freedomCustoms/traditions--exchangedCultural landscape--diffusionDiffusion--is the spreading of ideas and traits
15What is some evidence of cultural interaction? The spreading (diffusion) of US culture to other regions of the worldpopularization of other cultures’ traditions in the US
16Spatial Divisions as Forces of Conflict and Cooperation Spatial divisions are regions of the Earth’s surface over which groups of people establish social, economic and political control. Spatial divisions may generate conflict and/or cooperation.
23Reasons for Spatial Divisions Why are spatial divisions necessary at the local and regional levels?1) Desire for government to be closer to home;2) need to solve local problems and3) need to administer resources more efficiently
24How do spatial systems generate conflict? Reasons for ConflictHow do spatial systems generate conflict?1) Citizens may argue over boundaries;2) Citizens may have low tolerance for different cultures;
253) Citizens may fight/compete over scarce resources and 4) Citizens and/or politicians may try to gain political advantage
26Political Advantage?Yes, spatial divisions can be created in order to manipulate an electoral area, usually by altering the boundaries. This is known as gerrymandering. This is done to gain an unfair political advantage in an election.
27Reasons for Cooperation 1) Natural disasters2) Economic advantages (attracts new businesses)3) Cultural similarities—ethnic backgrounds4) Addressing regional issues like waste management, magnet schools and transportation.
28Patterns of urban development occur according to site and situation. Urbanization, or the growing of cities, was triggered by industrialization.Patterns of urban development occur according to site and situation.
29Site is the actual location of a city. Site and situationSite and situation are important geographic concepts when studying the growth of cities.Site is the actual location of a city.
30Situation is another name for relative location—the location of a city with respect to other geographic features, regions, resources, and transport routes.
31Harbor Sites: NY City, Alexandria, Egypt; Istanbul Turkey Island sites: Paris, Hong Kong, SingaporeFall line sites: Richmond, VAConfluence sites: Khartoum, Sudan; Pittsburg, PA
32Hilltop sites: Rome, Athens, Jerusalem Oasis Sites: Damascus, SyriaSites where rivers narrow: London, Quebec City
33Istanbul—Command of straits and land bridge to Europe SituationIstanbul—Command of straits and land bridge to EuropeMecca, Saudi Arabia; Varanasi (Benares), India—Focal point of pilgrimageSamarkand, Uzbekistan; Xi’an, China; Timbuktu, Mali; Singapore—Cities that grew up around trade routes
34Capetown, S.Africa—Supply station for ships Omaha, Nebraska; Sacramento, California—Cities that grew up along the U.S. Transcontinental railroadNovosibirsk,Vladivostok-Cities that grew up along the Trans-Siberian Railroad
35Functions of towns and cities Security and defenseReligious centersTrade centers (local and long distanceGovernmental administrationManufacturing centersService centers
36Examples of a city changing functions over time Rio de Janeiro—was the capital but now is a tourist attraction (Brasilia)Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania—early function was for frontier defense, then shifted to steel manufacturing, and now is the home to many diverse services
37New York City—has changed from a center of coastal and transatlantic trade to a center for the Great Lakes and Erie canal region to worldwide trade and financesMining towns– once the resources were gone, many towns became “ghost towns”
38What influence does urban areas have on their region and country? They are the home to monuments which help bring pride and develop nation-building.They are transportation and communication centers.They are natural attractions for immigrants.
39They are the seed beds for new ideas and technologies. Their diversity helps lead to creativity in the arts.Many are the home to major Universities which provide educational opportunities.
40They are the headquarters and regional outposts of major corporations. The major media outlets have their centers there (newspapers, radio, and television).
41What problems are associated with growth of urban areas? Transportation problems, especially since the automobile.Rich and poor neighborhoods are usually isolated from one another.As overcrowding occurs, providing essential services (water, sewage, electricity) is a problem.
42Air, water, and noise pollution Sprawl (spreading) of urban areas takes agricultural land out of production.Rapid migration results in “shantytowns” on the edge of Latin American, Asian, and African cities.
43In developing countries, major cities are more connected to the outside world than to less developed regions in their own countries