1Developing High-Performing Pre- Referral Intervention Teams Beyond Bureaucracy!Developing High-Performing Pre-Referral Intervention Teams
2The Educational Leader’s Role Administrative support, is the most important factor influencing the effectiveness of pre-referral intervention activities.Most administrators have limited knowledge and skill about pre-referral intervention activities.
3The Educational Leader’s Role (continued) School administrator’s create the conditions that either support or discourage the effectiveness of pre-referral intervention teams.Educational leaders must have the knowledge and skill required to design, establish and support effective problem-solving teams.
4Five Phase Model Analysis and Decision Making Planning and Preparation Start-UpProviding AssistanceEvaluation and Continuous Improvement
5Analysis and Decision Making Phase 1Analysis and Decision Making
6Advantages vs. Disadvantages Poor or low levels of implementation of pre-referral practices generates no significant difference in student performance.
7Benefits Reduction of inappropriate referrals to special education. - Cost savings due to fewer inappropriate special education referrals.Timely and responsive interventions.Enhanced teachers skills and attitudes.More inclusive, collaborative school environment.
8Costs Increased demands on time and energy of referring teacher. Threatening nature of shifting focus for the source of the student’s “problems”.
9FeasibilityAre there factors that will be major obstacles to initiating and sustaining high quality pre-referral intervention programs?Political barriersStructural/Material barriersCultural barriersPersonal
10DecisionsDo the benefits of making the changes required outweigh the costs associated with those changes?Is it feasible to make the required changes considering your current circumstances?
11Establishing and Analyzing the Task Step 1 – Describe the task the pre-referral intervention team is expected to accomplish as specifically and concretely as possible.
12ExampleOur schools’ pre-referral intervention teams will serve as a systematic, collaborative, problem-solving team. All of the teachers can access this team for assistance with creating and implementing interventions designed to eliminate or mitigate student’s learning, behavior, health or social-emotional problems.
13Establishing and Analyzing the Task (continued) Step 2 – Determine who will receive or review the outcomes of the services the pre-referral intervention team provides.Step 3 – Determine how those receiving or reviewing the services will assess the quality of the services received.
14Sample StatementTeachers accessing this service will believe they have been provided with effective ideas that can be realistically implemented in their classrooms. District administration will see a decrease in the number of referrals to special education, with a high percentage of those being referred being eligible for classification. Most importantly, students of the teachers accessing this service will demonstrate improved academic performance and/or classroom conduct that generalizes across time and settings.
15Establishing and Analyzing the Task (continued) Step 4 –Evaluate the relative importance of effort, knowledge and skill, and performance strategies to the successful completion of the task.
16Establishing Authority Leader’s role in relation to the pre-referral intervention team.Support of the school leader is essential.Membership on the team may be detrimental.Inhibit discourse because of fear of being evaluated/appearing less competent.Inhibit discourse because of deference to leader’s opinions.
17Establishing Authority (continued) Analyze task demands to determine nature and types of authority team must have to effectively complete their task.Will team members be willing to operate within this level of authority?
18Areas to ConsiderAbility to call upon knowledge and skills of other staff members for solving various types of classroom problems.Curricular and instructional modifications.Expenditure of funds.
20Team CompositionComposition of the team has a direct and significant impact upon the amount of knowledge and skill the team can apply to their collaborative problem solving activities.
21Team Composition (continued) Dysfunction tends to occur in large groups.- Difficulties making decisions and coordinating activities.Ideal group size between 4 and 6 members.- “ad-hoc” members when necessary.
22Team Composition (continued) Step one - review staff members and determine who has high levels of task relevant expertise.knowledge of curriculum and instructionclassroom management skillsclassroom assessment techniquesdifferentiate or individualize instruction
23Team Composition (continued) Step two – Determine individuals identified in step one that also have at least moderate levels of collaborative skill?Communicate effectively.Interest in assisting colleagues.
24Team Composition (continued) Step Three –Balance between the homogeneity and heterogeneity of team members.Wider the variety of training and expertise, greater the range of interventions and support that can be offered.Too much diversity makes it difficult to understand and coordinate with one another.
25Designing and Communicating the Task Design and communicate the task in a manner that team members perceive as being both clear and motivating.
26Motivating Potential of Tasks Require use of a variety of members’ talents and skills.Result in completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work.Provide opportunity to make a significant, meaningful difference.Provide substantial freedom, independence, and discretion for scheduling task related activities and determining procedures.Provide feedback mechanisms so the group receives trustworthy feedback about their performance.
27Task ClarityIf the task is to be clear to team members, they must understand the parameters within which they must work.- Constraints and requirementsTeam members must know who will be using and reviewing the group’s services, as well as the standards they will apply.
28School and District Supports Staff development and trainingData and informationRewards and recognitionMaterial resources
29Staff Development and Training Access to training and technical assistance required.May require or benefit from outside expertise.Must know who has the relevant knowledge and skills, and how these individuals can be accessed.
30DataDetermine basic information team members need to conduct collaborative problem-solving activities and then make it possible for members to access this data.- No data means strategies developed will be left to chance.
31Rewards and Recognition Team provided with something members value collectively, increases the probability actions will be repeated.contingent on demonstrated excellenceteam based
32Material ResourcesDetermine material resources required and provide those resources.Not provided with the necessary resources, commitment to process will be minimal or frustration may result from additional expectations placed upon team members.
33The Team CharterTemplate designed to organize the information collected or decided on in phase one and two.
35Team Boundaries Staff members part of multiple teams. Some more established and permanent.Members of the temporary, less well developed team prematurely seek input from more established, permanent teams.Divisions as how to proceed.Frustration & Poor performance result
36Core Team MembersIndividuals sharing responsibility for completion of the group task.- Accountable for final product or decision.Must know who is and is not a team member.
37Task RedefinitionAdministrator believes task is clearly understood once it is explained.Rarely the case.Especially true when there are multiple or conflicting objectives.- Speed vs. Quality
38Redefining the Task Explain team’s charter team’s taskeffectiveness criteriatask parametersProcess understanding of the task.
39Behavioral NormsMembers bring assumptions about appropriate group behavior.Rarely discussed explicitly.Norms developed ineffective for task completion.
40Behavioral Norms (continued) Focus explicit attention on types of behaviors valued – ways in which work will be managed.Norms will evolveProviding assistance in beginning gets process off to a good start.
41Sample Norms We will start and end our meetings on time. We will actively listen to each other’s ideas and opinions.We will place value on opinions based on the knowledge and skills of the individual and not the position they hold.We will remain focused on the topic or task.We will come to meetings prepared.
42Roles Reassuring/Productive to know who assumes what role in team. Responsibilities assigned to each role.Avoids overlap in completion of tasks/tasks not being completed.
43Roles/Responsibilities Team Coordinator – Responsibility & authority to coordinate team activities.Receive referralsEstablish case prioritiesSchedule meetingsConsult with referring teachers
44Roles/Responsibilities (continued) Resource group – Remaining team members- Use experience/expertise to generate alternatives.Referring teacher – has attempted interventions. Is seeking new ideas. He or she selects the ideas to be implemented.
45Importance of Start-Up Meeting Groups that get off to a good start perform better over time.Problems of groups that struggle in the beginning compound over time.Best time for authoritative intervention.
46Start-Up Meeting Agenda Introductions/Ice-BreakerReview of Team CharterTask-redefinition activityTeam norms activityTeam roles and responsibilitiesDate for initial training on collaborative problem-solving process
47Initial Collaborative Problem-Solving Process Training Must be done in teams.Should occur prior to team working with “clients”.
48Training Agenda Overview of flowchart describing process Explanation of plan componentsExplanation of collaborative-problem solving processProblem identificationProblem analysisPlan implementationPlan reviewRole-play activities
49Staff Awareness Staff members must know purpose of the teamresponsibilities as referring teacherprocess used for requesting assistanceStaff meeting, memo, staff handbook
50Sample Handbook Statement The purpose of the school’s pre-referral intervention team is to engage in collegial, collaborative problem-solving activities focused on assisting teachers in developing strategies for challenging student behavior, academic or health concerns. This is a voluntary activity and is not intended to serve as a barrier to initiating referrals for special education evaluations. Any teacher initiating a referral to this team is expected to complete parts I and II of the Pre-referral Intervention Plan form. Copies of this form are located in ____________. Upon completing this form, submit it in a sealed envelope to ___________________. He or she will then contact you to inform you of the status of your request and if appropriate, schedule the initial pre-referral intervention team meeting. All information discussed pertaining to the intervention process must be held in strict confidence. Staff is not to discuss any personally identifiable information with anyone outside the official function of this process. Should you have any questions about completing this form or the purpose of this team please contact ______________.
51Staff Training for Teachers Curriculum based measurementObservable, measurable target behaviorCollect data- 6-8 data points at different timesDetermine level of progress required for intervention to be successful.Determine time provided to reach goal.Graph data – Aim line (median plotted baseline data point & long-range goal data point).
53Eliminating Barriers Initial design features likely are flawed. Team members accept flaws as inevitable and unchangeable.No actions taken to revise context or structure.Lower quality products or decisions.
54Administrator’s RoleProvide scheduled, structured opportunities for review and renegotiation of design/context.- What is currently impeding the group’s performance and what if anything, could be done about it?Resist temptation to solve group’s problems.
55TechnologyEffective Leadership Solutions, LLC. (effectiveleadershipsolutions.com) has developed a software program designed to automate the management of all the forms and procedures.Create, share, save and archive parental notices and pre-referral intervention plans.Automatically compile program evaluation reports.
56Reflection Activities Group functioning never thoughtfully or systematically examined.Frequently pushed aside in favor of task completion activities.Teams rarely improve their ability to work effectively/efficiently on future tasks.
57Administrator’s Role Reflection activities scheduled and structured. Content of reflectionBehavioral normsRoles and responsibilitiesOutcomeCollectively developed goal statement for improving processes.- Revisit/Revise at next team maintenance meeting.
58Process Assistance Two specific aspects of group process Assisting with weighing inputs and sharing knowledge.Coordinating efforts and fostering commitment.
59Weighing inputs/sharing knowledge Value of individual’s knowledge and skill limited by weighting of team member’s contributions.Educators neither skilled nor practiced in sharing task-relevant knowledge.
60Weighing inputs/sharing knowledge Individuals task relevant knowledge extra credence becauseMore experienceImportant/powerful political connectionsPresent their views most persuasivelyResult is lower quality product or decision.
61Coordinating Efforts/Fostering Commitment Coordinate activities to minimize wasted effortGreatest possible contributions from each memberIncreased effort fromValuing membershipFinding collaborative work rewarding
62Educational Leader’s Role Process coachMonitor and facilitateIntervene only if necessary.- Risk “meddling” in team affairs
63Phase Five Evaluation and Continuous Improvement
64Difficulties Evaluation is complex Evaluation is multidimensional No clearly defined right-or-wrong answersLimited control over variables influencing outcomesEvaluation is multidimensionalTeacher/team member satisfaction with processesOutcomes of process
65Evaluation Tools Pre-referral Intervention Team Report Number of requests for assistanceStudent characteristicsOutcomes of requestsCompleted on a regularly scheduled basis
66Evaluation Tools Pre-referral Intervention Team Rating Scale Team members’ perceptions of team processSatisfaction with serving as a team member
67Evaluation Tools Teacher satisfaction survey Referring teacher’s satisfaction with assistance receivedCompleted in close proximity to team’s plan review meeting- Anonymous if possible
68Data Analysis/Action Planning Collaborative with teamProcessIdentify areas of concernDetermine highest prioritiesComplete action plans to make improvementsFollow-up
69Connecting Pre-Referral Intervention Teams and RTI
70Working HypothesisRTI and prereferral share many common goals and featuresPrereferral teams can serve as the mechanism for the delivery of RTIOnly if we improve and supplement our current Prereferral programs
71Characteristics of both Programs Primarily a general education programIdentification of students at risk due to insufficient progress in academics or behaviorIndividualized plans designed to meet specific student needsTeacher support & training for plan implementation
72Characteristics of both Programs (continued) On-going monitoring of the success of interventionsData based decision-makingCoordinated and flexible movement within the service programs of the school districtCommunication between stakeholders
73The ConnectionPerfectly positioned to identify “at-risk” pool of learnersCan conduct collaborative problem-solving activities leading to individualized intervention plansLink research-based resources to student’s needsUse decision rules & progress monitoring data, to manage movement within tiers
74Universal Screening Administer curriculum-based “probes” Address data gathered during universal screening processIdentify students in bottom 10th percentileDetermine need for intervention planning- Teacher screening questionnaire.assessment data collected reflects students’ typical performance.Enter students not identified into “at-risk” pool
75CautionClass has a disproportionate number of students falling within bottom 10%- Administrator may need to facilitate a classroom level intervention
76Individualized Problem-Solving and Planning Use problem-solving approach to determine interventions- List of scientifically based,research methodologiesdesigned to address specificneeds
78Tier Placement and Management Decision rules and ongoing assessment data used to determine ending, continuing or modifying interventions.- Rules guide movement within tiersStudents move along in tiers, interventions specified and progress monitoring become more intensive.
79Special Education Evaluation Research-based interventions done with fidelity are unsuccessful- Unlikely due to inadequacies in curriculum and instructionReferral for a special education evaluation initiatedData gathered, organized and provided to CST