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Mental Health Climate Change Training Module 625 Robert Street North PO Box 64975 St. Paul, MN 55164-0975 Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota.

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Presentation on theme: "Mental Health Climate Change Training Module 625 Robert Street North PO Box 64975 St. Paul, MN 55164-0975 Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mental Health Climate Change Training Module 625 Robert Street North PO Box St. Paul, MN Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit July 2013 Mental Health, Climate Change and Public Health

2 MDH developed this presentation based on scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals. References for information can be found in the relevant slides and/or at the end of the presentation. Notice 2

3 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 3

4 Weather conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time Climate conditions of the atmosphere over long periods of time (30 year standard averaging period) Definitions 4

5 Mental health – a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to contribute to his or her community Definitions 5

6 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 6

7 There have been three recent significant observed climate trends in Minnesota: The average temperature is increasing The average number of days with a high dew point may be increasing The character of precipitation is changing Observed Climate Changes 7

8 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 8

9 Temperature Changes in Minnesota 9

10 Winter temperatures have been rising about twice as fast as annual average temperatures Minimum or overnight low temperatures have been rising faster than maximum or daytime high temperatures Significant observations in warming pattern: Temperature Changes in Minnesota 10

11 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 11

12 Dew point – a measure of water vapor in the air A high dew point makes it more difficult for sweat to evaporate off the skin, which is one of the main mechanisms the body uses to cool itself The number of days with high dew point temperatures ( 70°F) may be increasing in Minnesota Dew Point Changes 12

13 Dew Point Changes 13

14 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 14

15 Changes in Precipitation 15

16 Precipitation in Minnesota is changing: More localized, heavy precipitation events Potential to cause both increased flooding and drought Changes in Precipitation 16

17 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 17

18 Understanding climate change is difficult Hazards are experienced differently based on geographic location, population, and season Effects of climate are unknown and uncertain Cannot be identified by personal experience alone We have to rely on scientific models and expert judgment, often through the lens of mass media Climate Change Awareness 18

19 Climate Change Awareness 19

20 Emotional reactions to the awareness of climate change include: – Fear – Sadness – Depression – Anxiety – Helpless and hopeless – Anger Climate Change Awareness 20

21 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 21

22 Psychological effects of climate change are likely to be gradual and cumulative The connection to climate change may not always be clear to those affected Manifests as two types of stress – Discrete – Continuous Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change 22

23 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 23

24 Places are nested collections of human experience, locations with which people and communities have particular affective relationships. Ties to a place are a part of identity – Familiarity – attachment Climate is fundamental to an individuals understanding of place Place 24

25 Attachment to place is so strong that it can be a primary driver of inaction The loss of a connection to place and sense of belonging in that place undermines mental health Solastalgia: palpable sense of dislocation and loss that felt when changes to a local environment are perceived as harmful Place is a key determinant of exposure to the impacts of climate change Climate change may alter look and feel of the defining attributes a place Place 25

26 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 26

27 Individual vulnerabilities: – Proximity to the disaster – Low socioeconomic status – Low social connectedness – Existing mental illness Community vulnerabilities: – Outdated emergency plans – Shortage of mental health resources at time of event – Repeated exposure to disaster or crisis Disasters and Mental Health 27

28 Poor mental health outcomes are not only attributable to exposure to the event – Displacement – Unstable or unknown housing circumstances – Lack of access to support services – Loss, particularly of employment, possessions Disasters and Mental Health 28

29 Specific post-disaster mental health outcomes may include: – Confusion – Depression – Anxiety – Grief – Post-traumatic stress disorder Case Study: Hurricane Katrina – Many victims have experienced stress disorders – Very high rates of suicide attempts (78.6 times higher than baseline rate) – High rates of suicide completion (14.7 times higher than baseline rate) – High rates of depression – Domestic violence/child abuse Disasters and Mental Health 29

30 Risk of living in disaster-prone areas – Cumulative mental health impacts are associated with the repeated exposure to natural disaster – Ongoing uncertainty, anxiety, dread can cause a build up of stress before disaster occurs Disasters and Mental Health 30

31 Displacement can lead to grief, anxiety, loss Fractured social networks and community connection Impact on receiving communities – Real or perceived lack of resources such as support services, housing, jobs, and natural resources – Perceived competition for resources can contribute to discrimination Disasters and Mental Health 31

32 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 32

33 Climate change can contribute to several sources of loss: – Loss of bio-diversity – Loss of habitat – Extinction of species – Crop failure – Water shortage – Drought – Loss of livelihood – Forced migration/displacement and the loss of place – Loss of property, pets, possessions Loss 33

34 Loss can impact our sense of self and disrupt our sense of place A series of losses is particularly devastating – Distinct bereavement for each loss – Impacts slow to dissipate without support Loss 34

35 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 35

36 As temperature rises, so does the incidence of violence – Increase in murders, assaults, violent suicide, and domestic violence when the weather is hot – Predicted: 24,000 assaults or murders in the US per year for every 2° F increase in average temperature Stress of experiencing natural disaster can lead to violence Climate Change and Violence 36

37 Mental health conditions significantly more common amongst those exposed to violence: Anxiety Depression Post-traumatic stress disorder Aggression and violent behavior Increased risk of suicide Mental Health Impact of Violence 37

38 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 38

39 Vulnerable communities are already beginning to experience disruptions to the social, economic, and environmental determinants of mental health – Disaster-prone areas – Economically dependent on environment Vulnerable Populations 39

40 Individuals who are at increased risk of mental health impacts of climate change include: – Persons with pre-existing mental illness – Persons on low incomes and/or unemployed – Persons who experience disaster – Victims of violence Vulnerable Populations 40

41 Financial hardships related to climate change – Reduced income or employment in climate sensitive industries – Increased costs of essential goods and services Disruption to food systems Decrease or loss of clean water supply Higher insurance rates Vulnerable Populations: Financial Hardship 41

42 Children may understand and experience the threat of climate change very different than their parents or grandparents Children so troubled by the state of the world that they honestly believe it will come to an end before they get older – The psychological impact on children has been compared to the impact on children worried about nuclear arms during the Cold War Era Children are more emotionally vulnerable to increased family violence and the occurrence of natural disasters Vulnerable Populations: Children 42

43 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 43

44 Ignorance Uncertainty Denial Place Attachment Perceived Behavioral Control Psychological Barriers to Climate Action 44

45 Social Comparison, Norms, Conformity, and Perceived Equity Conflicting Goals and Aspirations Belief in Solutions Outside of Human Control Psychological Barriers to Climate Action 45

46 Climate Change in Minnesota – Temperature – Dew Point – Precipitation Climate Change Awareness Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change – Place – Disasters and Mental Health – Loss – Violence Vulnerable Populations Psychological Barriers to Climate Action Role of Public Health Outline 46

47 Mental/Behavioral Health Annex to All-Hazards Plan Reduce the number of people with traumatic stress reactions by rapidly restoring key psychosocial domains – Safety and security – reuniting families – systems of justice – foundations for returning to work – institutions that provide meaning The Role of Public Health 47

48 PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID Safety Calm and Comfort Connectedness Self-empowerment Hope The Role of Public Health 48

49 Local public health departments are not expected to provide a full range of mental and behavioral health Identify and partner with the mental health resources available in your community before a disaster affects your community The Role of Public Health 49

50 Well-meaning attempts to create urgency about climate change can lead to denial, paralysis, apathy Focus on place– understand and communicate the local exposures of climate change and the response The Role of Public Health 50

51 Promote the benefits of climate action: – Positive coping mechanism – Personal meaning and satisfaction – Sense of control or contribution – Climate action has physical health benefits as well The Role of Public Health 51

52 Societys Grand Challenges: Global Climate Change American Psychological Association Human behavior is recognized as a main contributor to todays climate crisis, and yet, it is one of the least understood components of this complex problem. Learn how psychologists are studying ways to address global climate change. Ambit Network at the University of Minnesota is a leader in helping communities use research-based prevention and intervention techniques to increase childrens ability to deal with trauma. A Public Health Approach to Prevention of Behavioral Health Conditions A Presentation from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Conditions/SMA12-PHYDE This presentation discusses the public health model to prevent substance abuse and mental health disorders. Additionally, it reviews some of the challenges in preventing behavioral health problems and potential solutions, with an emphasis on early intervention. General Resources for Public Health 52

53 Behavioral Health and Emergency Preparedness Minnesota Department of Health, Office of Emergency Preparedness This website provides expanded information on Psychological First Aid, continuity of operations, resources for responders, disaster planning, and suicide prevention. Disaster Behavior Health Information Series SAMHSA A collection of resources, presentations, and toolkits pertinent to disaster behavioral health. Resources target specific populations or relate to specific types of disaster. Psychological First Aid Mobile App National Child Traumatic Stress Network PFA Mobile lets responders review PFA guidelines and assess their readiness to deliver PFA in the field. The app provides additional support for successful interactions with different survival groups. Disaster Behavioral Health Resources for Public Health 53

54 Minnesotas climate is changing – Increases in temperature – Increases in high dew point temperatures – Changing character of precipitation Climate change can have harmful impacts to our mental health – Continuous stress due to a changing environment – Discrete stress from exposure to natural disasters and other emergencies Certain populations are at greater risk of mental illness due to climate change, especially individuals who: – live in disaster-prone areas – survive a disaster – are economically dependent on a stable climate – have pre-existing mental illness – are children Public health awareness, planning, and training as well as effective climate communication can reduce the mental health impacts of climate change. Summary 54

55 This work was supported by cooperative agreement 5UE1EH from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Special thanks to the following people for their contributions to the creation of this training module: Nancy Carlson Minnesota Department of Health Office of Emergency Preparedness Susan Littrell, LiCSW, LADC Hennepin County Community Outreach for Psychiatric Emergencies (COPE) Ken Winters, Ph.D. University of Minnesota Department of Psychiatry Chris Bray, Ph.D., LP Ambit Network Mary Jo Verschay Minnesota Department of Human Services Acknowledgements 55

56 JULY 29, 2013 Contact Minnesota Climate and Health Program: TTY Questions? Thank You 56

57 Benson E. Societys Grand Challenges: Global Climate Change. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. Available online at: Berry HL, Kelly BJ, Hanigan IC, Coates JH, McMichael AJ, Welsh JA, Kjellstrom T Garnaut climate change review: rural mental health impacts of climate change. National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, ANU College of Medicine and Health Sciences. Coyle KJ, Van Susteren L The Psychological Effects of Global Warming on the United State: And Why the U.S. Mental Health System is Not Adequately Prepared. National Wildlife Federation. Doherty TJ, Clayton S The psychological impacts of global climate change. American Psychologist, Vol. 6:4, page 265. Ebi KL, Balbus J, Kinney PL, Lipp E, Mills D, ONeill MS, and Wilson M Effects of global change on human health. In: Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems [Gamble JL (ed.), Ebi KL, Sussman FG, and Wilbanks TJ (authors)]. Synthesisand Assessment Product 4.6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp Ebi KL, Semenza JC Community-based adaptation to the health impacts of climate change. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 2008; 35 (5): 501. Fritze J, Blashki GA, Burke S, Wiseman J Hope, despair and transformation: Climate change and the promotion of mental health and wellbeing. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 2: 13. Frumkin et. al, Framing Public Health Matters, Climate Change: the Public Health Response, Howard Frumkin, MD, DRPH, Jeremy Hess, MD, MPH, George Luber, PhD, Josephine Malilay, PhD, MPH, and Michael McGeehin, PhD, MSPH, American Journal of Public Health, March 2008, Vol. 98, No. 3, pp Harvey JH The Psychology of Loss as a Lens to a Positive Psychology. American Behavioral Scientist, January 2001, 44: 838. Hess JJ, Malilay JN, Parkinson AJ Climate change: the importance of place. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 35:5, p Interagency Working Group on Climate Change and Health A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change: A Report Outlining the Research Needs on the Human Health Effects of Climate Change. Published by Environmental Health Perspectives and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Keim ME Building human resilience: the role of public health preparedness and response as adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventative Medicine 35:5, p References 57

58 Leiserowitz A Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: the role of affect, imagery, and values. Climate Change, 2005; 77: Leiserowitz A, Maibach E, Roser-Renouf, C, Feinberg G, Howe, P Global Warmings Six Americas, September Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. Maibach E, Nisbet M, Weather M Conveying the Human Implications of Climate Change: A Climate Change Communication Primer for Public Health Professionals. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet, March 2006; 367: Midwestern Regional Climate Center Climate Change & Variability in the Midwest. Temperature and Precipitation Trends 1895 – Available online: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Whats the Difference Between Weather and Climate? Available online: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012a. National Climactic Data Center, Billion Dollar Weather/Climate Disasters. Available online: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012b. Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services. Available online: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations National Weather Service (June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22,2011 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations National Weather Service (Modified June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22, 2011 from References 58

59 Randall R Loss and climate change; the cost of parallel narratives. Ecopsychology 1:3, p Seeley M Climate Trends and Climate Change in Minnesota: A Review. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: Shea KM Global climate change and childrens health. Pediatrics, 2007; 120: e1359. State Climatology Office. Department of Natural Resources – Division of Ecological and Water Resources and the University of Minnesota – Department of Soil, Water, and Climate. Available online: Dew Point (http://climate.umn.edu/doc/twin_cities/mspdewpoint.htm) Dew Point July 19, 2011 Technical Analysis (http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/july_19_2011_ technical.pdf)http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/july_19_2011_ technical.pdf Drought Information Resources (http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/climate/drought/index.html)http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/climate/drought/index.html History Mega-Rain Events in Minnesota (http://www.climate.umn.edu/doc/journal/mega_rain_events.htm)http://www.climate.umn.edu/doc/journal/mega_rain_events.htm Warshaw C, Moroney, G Mental Health and Domestic Violence. The Domestic Violence and Mental Health Policy Initiative. Available online at: Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011a. Minnesota Temperature 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November Available online: Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011b. Minnesota Precipitation 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November Available online: World Health Organization (WHO) Climate change exposures, chronic diseases, and mental health in urban populations: a threat to health security, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged. World Health Organization (WHO) Climate change and health. Fact sheet N°266. Available online: Zandlo, Jim Observing the climate. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: References 59

60 Slide 4: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 5: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 7: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 9: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 10: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 13: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 15: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 17: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 19: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 20: Microsoft Clip Art, Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank Slide 21: Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank Slide 23: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 24: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 26: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 27: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 29: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 30: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 32: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 33: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 35: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 36: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 37: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 38: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 40: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 41: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 43: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 45: Microsoft Clip Art Slide 46: Minnesota Department of Health Image Collection Image Credits 60


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