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Climate Change 101 Climate Change Training Module Climate Change and Public Health 101 MN Climate & Health Program Minnesota Department of Health Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Change 101 Climate Change Training Module Climate Change and Public Health 101 MN Climate & Health Program Minnesota Department of Health Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Change 101 Climate Change Training Module Climate Change and Public Health 101 MN Climate & Health Program Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit October Robert Street North PO Box St. Paul, MN

2 Notice MDH developed this presentation based on scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals. References for information can be found in the relevant slides and/or at the end of the presentation. 2

3 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 3

4 Definitions Weather – conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time Climate – conditions of the atmosphere over long periods of time (30- year standard averaging period) 4

5 Definitions Adaptation – efforts to anticipate and prepare for the effects of climate change, and thereby to reduce the associated health burden Mitigation – efforts to slow, stabilize, or reverse climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions 5

6 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 6

7 There have been three recent significant observed climate trends in Minnesota: The average temperature is increasing The average number of days with a high dew point may be increasing The character of precipitation is changing Observed Climate Changes 7

8 Temperature Changes in Minnesota 8

9 Significant observations in warming pattern: Winter temperatures have been rising about twice as fast as annual average temperatures Minimum or overnight low temperatures have been rising faster than maximum or daytime high temperatures 9

10 Temperature Changes in Minnesota WINTER: + 2.2° SUMMER: + 0.8° AUTUMN: + 0.5° SPRING: + 1.6° 10 Seasonal Temperature Trends (°F per century) Based on Data

11 Projected Summer Temperatures Current average summer temperature (°C) Average summer temperature change by 2069 (°C) 11

12 Dew Point Changes Dew point – a measure of water vapor in the air A high dew point makes it more difficult for sweat to evaporate off the skin, which is one of the main mechanisms the body uses to cool itself The number of days with high dew point temperatures ( 70°F) may be increasing in Minnesota 12

13 Dew Point Changes 13

14 Changes in Precipitation 14

15 Changes in Precipitation Precipitation in Minnesota is changing: More localized, heavy precipitations events Potential to cause both increased flooding and drought 15

16 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 16

17 Extreme Heat An extreme heat event is characterized by weather that is substantially hotter and/or more humid for a particular location at a particular time Extreme Heat Events 17

18 Extreme Heat Extreme heat events can cause: Heat tetany (hyperventilation) Heat rash Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heat edema (swelling) Heat syncope (fainting) Heat stroke Death 18

19 Extreme Heat Risk Factors Lack of air conditioning in home Low socioeconomic status Living in urban areas Living in topmost floor of a dwelling Living in nursing homes or being bedridden Living alone or a lack of social or family ties Prolonged sun exposure Drinking alcohol Exercising outside on warm days 19

20 Extreme Heat Vulnerable Populations Everyone Elderly persons 65 years and older Especially those who live alone Children Persons with pre-existing disease conditions Persons taking certain medications Athletes Outdoor workers Homeless 20

21 Urban Heat Islands Higher temperatures in urban areas relative to surrounding suburban and rural areas can be caused by: Reduced vegetation and green space Heat-absorbing surfaces, such as pavement Heat-reflecting surfaces, including many building materials Skyscrapers obstructing free air flow 21 Images from the Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank. Used with permission.

22 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 22

23 Air Pollutants and Allergens Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by: Creating both more windiness and more air stagnation events Increasing temperatures which... Increase pollution from fossil fuel combustion to meet electricity demand for increased air conditioner use Increase production of natural sources of air pollutant emissions Increase formation of ozone Lengthening the allergy season, creating more potent allergens 23 Image from the Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank. Used with permission.

24 Air Pollutants and Allergens Ground-Level Ozone Health Impacts Effects of acute exposure: Acute exposure to elevated ozone can lead to hospitalization or death Effect of long-term exposure: Decreased lung function and new-onset asthma Elevated ozone can exacerbate other conditions, such as asthma and allergies Populations at Risk Due to increased exposure: Healthy people, especially athletes and outdoor workers in landscape and construction who may be exposed to higher levels of ozone for longer periods of time on high pollution days Due to sensitivity: Persons with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Older adults and children 24

25 Air Pollutants and Allergens Particulate Matter Health Impacts Effects of acute exposure: Short-term decrease in lung function Exacerbation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Hospitalization and death Effect of long-term exposure: Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths Populations at Risk Due to increased exposure: Persons living or working in urban areas, especially near high-traffic corridors and/or stationary sources of PM (such as factories or power plants) Due to sensitivity: Persons with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Elderly and children Persons with asthma and/or allergies 25

26 Air Pollutants and Allergens Climate change impact on allergenic pollen: Increased pollen production Longer pollen season Increased potency of airborne allergens Proliferation of weedy plant species that are known producers of allergenic pollen Introduction of new allergen- producing plant species 26

27 Air Pollutants and Allergens Mold growth is encouraged by moisture: Increased precipitation and flooding Increased humidity Increase in plant growth/plant biomass decay (leaf litter) Improper installation or management of air conditioning systems can create conditions ripe for mold (Image Source: Terry Brennan, )http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/imagegallery5.html 27

28 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 28

29 Flooding On average, the overall rainfall in Minnesota is increasing. In Minnesota, the frequency of storms with 3 or more inches of rainfall has increased 104% in the last 50 years. Examples of severe floods in Minnesotas history include: April 1997: Red River Valley August 2007: Southeast Minnesota June 2012: Duluth 29

30 Flooding Health Impacts physical injuries (including drowning) allergies (mold) food and water-borne illnesses food security displacement mental health issues interruption of emergency services 30

31 Drought Changing natural and social factors play a role in how drought affects society, economy, and environment. Factors include: Timing of drought Temperature Population density and growth Development and implementation of water supply technology Land use patterns 31

32 Drought Health Impacts Reduced lake and wetland levels and stream flows Potential concentration of pollutants Decreased water supply for drinking and agriculture Negative effects on soil moisture and crop progress will impact food security Increased risk of wildfires 32

33 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 33

34 Other Impacts of Public Health Concern Vectorborne Diseases Climate changes such as warmer temperatures, increased rainfall, longer warm season and less severe winters can impact the range and incidence of vectorborne disease. Risk is also impacted by land use, population density, and human behavior. Black-legged ticks (deer ticks), which carry Lyme disease, are most active on warm, humid days. They are also most abundant in wooded or brushy areas with abundant small animals and deer. If those areas are one where many people live, work, or visit for recreation, the incidence of tick-borne disease can be high. For more information on climate and vectorborne disease, visit: 34

35 Other Impacts of Public Health Concern Power Outages Demand for electricity increases in warmer climates in order to air condition homes and businesses. Increased temperatures may reduce the efficiency of power production in facilities that require water for cooling. Severe storms and flooding can interrupt power service through damaged and destroyed infrastructure Brownouts: intentionally reduced voltage in a power supply system used for load reduction in an emergency; may prevent black outs but can have other impacts 35

36 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 36

37 The High Cost of Disasters 37

38 The High Cost of Disasters 2012 Duluth Flood: A 500 Year Storm Event Total rainfall in excess of 10 inches resulted in severe flash flooding and river flooding $108 million in damage in infrastructure alone damages to roads, bridges, water and sewer systems, electric utilities, and communications infrastructure Damage to 1,700 homes and 100 businesses included structural damage, loss of utilities, sewage back up, and the subsequent sustained heat and humidity exacerbated mold growth Estimated damages for these homes and businesses exceed $12 million Photo credits: Rachel Agurkis (top), Derek Montgomery for MPR (bottom) 38

39 The High Cost of Disasters 39

40 The High Cost of Disasters 40

41 The High Cost of Disasters Recent case study analysis of 6 climate-related disasters estimated the associated health care costs: US Ozone Air Pollution, California Heat Wave, 2006 Florida Hurricane Season, 2004 Louisiana West Nile Virus Outbreak, 2002 North Dakota Red River Flooding, 2009 Southern California Wildfires, 2003 The associated health care costs alone topped $14 billion 1,689 premature deaths 8,992 hospitalizations 21,113 emergency visits 734,398 outpatient visits 41

42 Outline Climate Change in Minnesota Health Impacts of Climate – Extreme Heat Events – Air Quality: Pollutants and Allergens – Flooding and Drought – Other Impacts The High Cost of Disasters The Role of Public Health 42

43 Climate Change and Public Health 43 Extreme Precipitation Increased Temperature Increased Humidity Extreme Heat Air Pollutants & Allergens Drought Changes in Environment & Habitat Severe Storms & Flooding Wildfire Heat-related illness and death Cardiovascular disease, stroke Respiratory Illness Injuries and Drowning Vector-borne illness Displacement Waterborne and foodborne illness Stress, Mental Illness Adaptation Measures Climate ChangesEventsHealth Outcomes Mitigation Public Health Role Risk Factors (positive and negative)

44 Public Health Strategies Mitigation Promote activities that reduce harmful emissions Active communities that make biking, walking, and/or public transportation safe and convenient Telecommuting or other work schedule alternatives that do not require employees to drive daily Reduce the production of harmful air pollutants by: Improving energy efficiency Reduce energy consumption Use alternatives to fossil fuels Reduce combustion of fossil fuels 44 Images from the Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank. Used with permission.

45 Public Health Strategies Adaptation Monitoring conditions and providing useful information to the public Extreme heat events Air Quality Index Disasters Community and infrastructure planning Retention ponds and wetlands increase water storage Pervious surfaces and rain gardens increase infiltration, reducing run- off Increasing capacity of stormwater systems Reduce the urban heat island effect by maintaining green space in urban areas Emergency Preparedness Robust all-hazards plans that include annexes for severe storms, extreme heat, power loss Identification and understanding of high-risk and vulnerable populations 45

46 Communicating Climate Change 46 The Yale Project on Climate Change Communication identified six distinct American audiences, each of which responds to the issue of climate change in markedly different ways. 12% 27% 25% 10% 15% 10% Highest belief in climate change Most concerned Most motivated Lowest belief in climate change Least concerned Least motivated AlarmedConcernedCautiousDisengagedDoubtfulDismissive

47 Communicating Climate Change 47 12% 27% 25% 10% 15% 10% AlarmedConcernedCautiousDisengagedDoubtfulDismissive Completely convinced that climate change is real Believe that people are already being harmed by climate change Supportive of personal and policy action Believe that climate change is real Feel that dangerous impacts of climate change will be seen in 10 years Supportive of personal and policy action Unsure whether climate change is occurring Believe the impacts of climate change will be seen in 25 years Do not believe personal actions or the actions of a single nation will make any difference

48 Communicating Climate Change 48 12% 27% 10% 15% 10% AlarmedConcernedCautiousDisengagedDoubtfulDismissive Less convinced that climate change is happening Believe that impacts of climate change will be felt in 50 years Do not feel that immediate action is needed Unconcerned about whether or not climate change is occurring Believe the impacts of climate change will be felt in 100 years Do not feel that immediate action is needed The only segment that is completely unconcerned about climate change because they do not believe it is happening 25%

49 Communicating Climate Change Most Americans think of climate change in geographically and temporally distant terms Few Americans, without prompting, report that climate change has any connection to human health 49

50 Communicating Climate Change Frame climate change as a human health issue Localize climate change Emphasize the health co- benefits associated with climate change action Communications Strategies 50

51 Summary Minnesotas climate is changing: – Increases in temperature – Increases in high dew point temperatures – Increases in extreme precipitations events Climate changes can lead to a variety of events with serious health impacts – Extreme Heat – Air pollution and allergies – Flooding and drought Public health awareness, education, and mitigation and/or adaptation can reduce the health impacts of climate change 51

52 Climate Change Training Modules Other modules in this series include: Extreme Heat Events, Climate Change and Public Health Air Quality, Climate Change and Public Health Water Quality and Quantity, Climate Change and Public Health These can all be found on the MN Climate and Health Programs website: Upcoming topics include: Agriculture Mental Health 52

53 Acknowledgements This work was supported by cooperative agreement 5UE1EH from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 53

54 Thank You Questions? Contact Minnesota Climate and Health Program: October 23, 2012

55 References Adcock MP, Bines WH, Smith FW (2000), Heat-Related Illnesses, Deaths, and Risk Factors – Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio, 1999, and United States, , Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online: Amann, Swart, Raes, Tuinstra A good climate for clean air: linkages between climate change and air pollution. Climatic Change 66: 263–269. Anderson GB and Bell ML (2011), Heat waves in the United States: Mortality risk during heat waves and effect modification by heat wave characteristics in 43 US communities, Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(2), 210. Bernard SM, Samet JM, Grambsch A, Ebi KL, Romieu I The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 109, Supplement 2, pp California Department of Public Health Public Health Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for California. Available online: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2009), Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety, Available online: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Climate and Health, Aero-allergens (website). Accessed May 8, 2012: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, and America Water Works Association "When Every Drop Counts: Protecting Public Health During Drought Conditions-- A Guide for Public Health Professionals." Atlanta, US Department of Health and Human Services. Clean Air Taskforce The Toll from Coal: An Updated Assessment of Death and Disease from Americas Dirtiest Energy Source. Available online: Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Analyses of the effects of global change on human health and welfare and human systems. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. [Gamble JL (ed.), Ebi KL, Sussman FG, Wilbanks TJ, (Authors)]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA. Governor Dayton, M Individual Assistance request to President Barak Obama. July 19, Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Minnesotas Water Supply: Natural Conditions and Human Impacts. Available online: ___________. 2011a. Drought. Available online: ___________. 2011b. Lake Level Minnesota. Available online: index.html Ebi KL, Balbus J, Kinney PL, Lipp E, Mills D, ONeill MS, and Wilson M Effects of global change on human health. In: Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems [Gamble JL (ed.), Ebi KL, Sussman FG, and Wilbanks TJ (authors)]. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2012). Floods. Available online: Frumkin et. al, Framing Public Health Matters, Climate Change: the Public Health Response, Howard Frumkin, MD, DRPH, Jeremy Hess, MD, MPH, George Luber, PhD, Josephine Malilay, PhD, MPH, and Michael McGeehin, PhD, MSPH, American Journal of Public Health, March 2008, Vol. 98, No. 3, pp Galatowitsch S, Frelich L, and Phillips-Mao L (2009), Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation in a Midcontinental Region of North America, Biological Conservation 142: 2012–

56 References Horstmeyer, SL Relative humidity... Relative to what? The dew point temperature... a better approach. Available online: Jacob DJ, Winner DA Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment,Vol 34, pp Kessler R Stormwater Strategies: Cities prepare aging infrastructure for climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol 119, Num 12. Knowlton K, Rotkin-Ellman M, Geballe L, Max W, Solomon GM Six Climate Change-Related Events in The United States Accounted for About $14 Billion in Lost Lives and Health Costs. Health Affairs, Vol 30, No. 11, pp Kovats RS and Hajat S (2008), Heat stress and public health: a critical review, Annu Rev Public Health; 29: Kundzewicz ZW, Mata LJ, Arnell NW, Döll P, Kabat P, Jiménez B, Miller KA, Oki T, Sen Z and Shiklomanov IA Freshwater resources and their management. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, [Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, and Hanson CE(eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, pp Leiserowitz A, Maibach E, Roser-Renouf C, Smith N Global Warmings Six Americas, May Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. Available online: Maibach E, Nisbet M, Weather M Conveying the Human Implications of Climate Change: A Climate Change Communication Primer for Public Health Professionals. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication. Midwestern Regional Climate Center Climate Change & Variability in the Midwest. Temperature and Precipitation Trends 1895 – Available online:http://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/mwclimate_ change.htmhttp://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/mwclimate_ change.htm Minnesota Department of Health Vector-borne Diseases. Available online: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) Floods: Minimizing Pollution and Health Risks. Available online: response/floods-minimizing-pollution-and-health-risks.html response/floods-minimizing-pollution-and-health-risks.html Myers TA, Nisbet MC, Maibach, EW, Leiserowitz AA A public health frame arouses hopeful emotions about climate change. Climactic Change 113: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Whats the Difference Between Weather and Climate? Available online: National Drought Mitigation Center Drought-Ready Communities: A Guide to Community Drought Preparedness. 56

57 References National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012a. National Climactic Data Center, Billion Dollar Weather/Climate Disasters. Available online: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2012b. Office of Climate, Water, and Weather Services. Available online: National Wildlife Federation Extreme Allergies and Global Warming. Available online: (NWS, 2009a) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations National Weather Service (June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22,2011 from (NWS, 2009b) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations National Weather Service (Modified June 25, 2009). Retrieved on June 22, 2011 from Pope CA, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. vol. 151 no Rogers, CA, PM Wayne, EA Macklin, et al Interaction of the onset of spring and elevated atmospheric CO 2 on ragweed pollen production. Environmental Health Perspectives 114: Seeley M Climate Trends and Climate Change in Minnesota: A Review. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: Shea K et al Climate change and allergic disease. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Doi: /j.jaci Snyder P (2012), Islands in the Sun, presented January 19, University of Minnesota Department of Soil, Water, and Climate Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS). Data downloaded April Available online: State Climatology Office. Department of Natural Resources – Division of Ecological and Water Resources and the University of Minnesota – Department of Soil, Water, and Climate. Available online: Dew Point (http://climate.umn.edu/doc/twin_cities/mspdewpoint.htm) Dew Point July 19, 2011 Technical Analysis (http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/july_19_2011_ technical.pdf)http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/july_19_2011_ technical.pdf Drought Information Resources (http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/climate/drought/index.html)http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/climate/drought/index.html History Mega-Rain Events in Minnesota (http://www.climate.umn.edu/doc/journal/mega_rain_events.htm)http://www.climate.umn.edu/doc/journal/mega_rain_events.htm Union of Concerned Scientists Climate Change and Your Health: Rising Temperatures, Worsening Ozone Pollution. Available online: US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) A Review of the Impact of Climate Variability and Change on Aeroallergens and Their Associated Effects (Final Report). Available online: US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Agriculture and Food Supply. Available online: US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Energy Impacts and Adaptation. Available online: adaptation/energy.htmlhttp://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts- adaptation/energy.html 57

58 References US Forest Service Incident Information System Pagami Creek Fire. Available online: US National Hazard Statistics Accessed 7/30/2012. Available online: Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011a. Minnesota Temperature 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November Available online: Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011b. Minnesota Precipitation 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November Available online: World Health Organization (WHO) Climate change and health. Fact sheet N°266. Available online: Zandlo, Jim Observing the climate. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: 58

59 Image Credits Slide 4: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 5: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 7: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 9: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 10: Midwest Regional Climate Center Slide 11: Galatowitsch et al., 2009 Slide 12: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 15: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 17: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 18: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 19: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 20: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 21: Images from Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank. Slide 23: Images from Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank. Slide 26: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 27: Terry Brennan, Slide 29: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 30: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 31: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 32: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 35: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 37: NOAA National Climactic Data Center, 2012 Slide 38: Top image from Rachel Agurkis, Bottom image from Derek Montgomery for MPR Slide 41: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 44: Images from Metropolitan Design Center Image Bank. Slide 49: Images from Microsoft Clip Art Slide 50: Images from Microsoft Clip Art 59


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