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Air Quality Climate Change Training Module Air Quality, Climate Change and Public Health Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota Department of Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Quality Climate Change Training Module Air Quality, Climate Change and Public Health Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota Department of Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Quality Climate Change Training Module Air Quality, Climate Change and Public Health Minnesota Climate and Health Program Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit October 2012 625 Robert Street North PO Box 64975 St. Paul, MN 55164-0975

2 Notice MDH developed this presentation based on scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals. References for information can be found in the relevant slides and/or at the end of the presentation. 2

3 Outline Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health Climate Changes in MN Climate Change and Air Quality Particulate matter Ground-level ozone Allergens Public Health/Government Strategies 3

4 Air Quality and Public Health History In the twelfth century, air pollution was already associated with urban environments and their higher population densities 1948, Donora, PA smog event: 20 dead, 4,000 hospitalized 1952, Great Smog in London, England 4,000+ excess deaths during 5 day event (Dec 5 – 9, 1952) 12,000+ excess deaths estimated due to persisting effects between Dec 1952 – Feb 1953 4 London, Dec 5-9, 1952 Donora, Oct 26-29, 1948

5 Air Quality and Public Health Air quality has been improving From 2001 to 2012: Ground-level ozone is 13% lower Year-round particle pollution is 24% lower Short-term particle pollution is 28% lower However, we still have a ways to go Health impacts occur at lower levels of air pollutants than previously thought 41% of U.S. population lives in counties that have unhealthful levels of either ground-level ozone or particle pollution Ramsey County received an F in the American Lung Association 2012 State of the Air report for short-term particle pollution 5

6 Air Quality and Public Health 6 People can be affected by poor air quality because of exposure and/or sensitivity Persons affected due to exposure: Certain occupations, such as professional drivers (trucks, taxis), parking lot attendants, construction workers and others living and working near pollution sources Athletes and outdoor workers on high pollution days Persons affected due to sensitivity: Have existing health conditions: Asthma Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Heart disease Allergies Young children Elderly

7 Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health Climate Changes in Minnesota Climate Changes and Air Quality Particulate matter Ground-level ozone Allergens Public Health/Government Strategies 7

8 8 Weather versus Climate Weather: conditions of the atmosphere over a short period of time Climate: conditions of the atmosphere over long periods of time (30-year standard averaging period)

9 Climate Changes 9 There have been three recent significant observed climate trends in Minnesota: The average temperature is increasing The average number of days with a high dew point may be increasing The character of precipitation is changing

10 Climate Changes: Temperature 10 Temperature has been rising in Minnesota.

11 Climate Changes: Temperature 11 Three significant observations in this overall warming: Winter temperatures have been rising about twice as fast as annual average temperatures Minimum or 'overnight low' temperatures have been rising faster than the maximum temperature, or daytime high Since the early 1980s, the temperature has risen slightly over 1°F in southern Minnesota to a little over 2°F in much of the northern part of the state

12 Climate Changes: Dew Point 12 Dew point definition: Dew point is a measure of water vapor in the air The higher the dew point, the more difficult it is for people's sweat to evaporate, which is how we cool ourselves The number of days with high dew point temperatures ( 70°F) may be increasing in Minnesota

13 Climate Changes: Dew Point 13 Source: Dr. Mark Seeley, Climatologist, University of Minnesota

14 Climate Changes: Precipitation 14 On average, the total precipitation in the state has increased since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s.

15 Climate Changes: Precipitation 15 The character of precipitation in Minnesota is changing More localized, heavy precipitation events Potential to cause both increased flooding and drought

16 Climate Changes What do the trends mean? Extreme Weather: Increased extreme heat events and reduced cooling overnight Increased intense, localized storms and flooding Increased localized drought and fires Changing ecosystems: Earlier ice out Earlier flowering and longer growing season 16

17 Climate Change 17 Climate changes have not only brought Minnesota an earlier growing season but changes in the types of plants that will thrive here

18 Outline Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health Climate Change in Minnesota Climate Change and Air Quality Particulate matter Ground-level ozone Allergens Public Health/Government Strategies 18

19 Climate Change and Air Quality One study estimates that each one degree Celsius (1.8°F) increase in temperature would cause about 1,000 additional deaths in the US associated with air pollution. (Jacobson, 2008) 19

20 Climate Change and Air Quality Climate change may affect exposures to air pollutants by: Creating both more windiness and more air stagnation events Increasing temperatures which... Increase pollution from fossil fuel combustion to meet electricity demand for increased air conditioner use Increase production of natural sources of air pollutant emissions Increase formation of ground-level ozone Lengthening the allergy season, creating more potent allergens 20

21 Outline Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health Climate Change in Minnesota Climate Change and Air Quality Particulate matter Ground-level ozone Allergens Public Health/Government Strategies 21

22 Particulate Matter Particulate matter is a major pollutant for which concentrations are anticipated to be affected by climate change, and is therefore emphasized for public health impacts. Particulate matter comes in different sizes (coarse and fine) from a number of sources including: Dust and other small particles from construction, mining and agriculture Pollen Fine particles from burning fossil fuels in factories, power plants, and diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicles 22

23 Particulate Matter Particulate matter (PM) can have serious health impacts Effects of acute exposure : Short-term decrease in lung function Exacerbation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Hospitalizations and deaths Effects of long term exposure: Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths 23 Potential health effects of PM exposure, increased risk of: impaired respiratory function chronic cough bronchitis chest illness chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pneumonia cardiovascular diseases allergic disease and asthma cardiopulmonary diseases cancer

24 Particulate Matter Populations at risk of health effects from particulate matter At risk from exposure: Persons living or working in urban areas, especially near high-traffic corridors and/or stationary sources of PM (such as factories or power plants) At risk from sensitivity: Persons with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Elderly and children Persons with asthma and/or allergies 24

25 Particulate Matter Climate change may affect exposures to PM by: Increasing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants due to demand for electricity for cooling Increasing natural sources of air pollutant emissions Wildfire smoke induced by drought and heat 25

26 Particulate Matter 26 2011 Boundary Waters Canoe Area wildfire burned nearly 145 square miles and costs reached $21 million. Smoke and ash spread as far as northeast Wisconsin and Traverse City, Michigan. (MPR News, 2011)

27 Outline Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health Climate Change in Minnesota Climate Change and Air Quality Particulate matter Ground-level ozone Allergens Public Health/Government Strategies 27

28 Ground-Level Ozone Ground-level ozone is a main pollutant for which concentrations are anticipated to be affected by climate change, and is therefore emphasized for public health impacts. Ground-level ozone is formed by the reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) in the presence of sunlight and heat. 28 Source: American Lung Association

29 Ground-Level Ozone Ground-level ozone exposure is linked to harmful respiratory conditions and cardiopulmonary impacts Short-term exposure to elevated ozone can lead to hospitalizations or death Long-term exposure to lower levels of ozone can decrease lung function, and may also cause new- onset asthma Elevated ozone levels can exacerbate other conditions, such as asthma and allergies 29

30 Ground-Level Ozone Populations at risk of health effects from ground-level ozone: At risk from exposure: Healthy people, especially athletes and outdoor workers in landscape and construction who may be exposed to higher levels of ozone for longer periods of time on high pollution days At risk from sensitivity: Persons with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Older adults and children 30

31 Ground-Level Ozone Climate change could significantly increase summertime ground-level ozone by: Increasing temperatures Creating stagnant air conditions Affecting natural sources of air pollutant emissions (biogenic VOCs) Overall, increase poor air quality index (AQI) days Effect is most likely during the summer months, downwind of urban areas 31 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Air Quality Index http://aqi.pca.state.mn.us/

32 Outline Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health Climate Change in Minnesota Climate Change and Air Quality Particulate matter Ground-level ozone Allergens Public Health/Government Strategies 32

33 Allergens 33 An allergy is the bodys immune system overreacting to certain substances Common allergens that may be affected by climate changes include: Pollen Mold Approximately 25 million Americans suffer from hay fever (allergic rhinitis) It costs approximately $11.2 billion per year to treat allergic rhinitis in the U.S. Giant Ragweed plant Source: Mary Jelks, MD, AAAAI

34 Allergens Allergens can affect persons with allergies and asthma Allergens can interact with air pollution to amplify their individual effects: When ground-level ozone levels are high, it takes much less ragweed pollen to trigger an asthmatic or allergic response Particulate matter also increases allergic responses by extending how long the allergens stay in the body 34

35 Climate Change Impacts on Pollen 35 Temperature Carbon dioxide Precipitation Climate change impacts on pollen: Increased pollen production, longer pollen season, increased potency airborne allergens Proliferation of weedy plant species that are known producers of allergenic pollen Introduction of new allergen- producing plant species

36 Allergens: Pollen 36 Allergenic pollen will be worse in urban areas: up to 7x higher than surrounding rural areas Minneapolis has already experienced a 16 day increase in length of ragweed pollen season from 1995 to 2009 Check pollen report at http://pollen.aaaai.org/ http://pollen.aaaai.org/

37 Allergens: Pollen 37 Source: National Wildlife Federation, 2010

38 Allergens: Mold Mold growth is enhanced by moisture Increase in precipitation/floods Increase in temperature and/or humidity Increase in plant growth/plant biomass decay (leaf litter) Improper installation or management of air conditioning systems can create conditions ripe for mold Mold can cause coughing, wheezing, nasal and throat conditions, and adversely affect persons with asthma or weakened immune systems 38 Extensive mold contamination of ceiling and walls (Source Terry Brennan, http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/imagegallery5.html)http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/imagegallery5.html

39 Outline Introduction to Air Quality and Public Health Climate Change in Minnesota Climate Change and Air Quality Particulate matter Ground-level ozone Allergens Public Health/Government Strategies 39

40 Public Health/Govt Strategies Mitigation Effective policies to mitigate health impacts from exposure to air pollutants focus on the reduction of air pollutant emissions Reduce production of harmful air pollutants Improve energy efficiency Use alternatives to fossil fuels Reduce combustion of fossil fuels Reduce urban heat island effect Maintain green space 40 Example of urban heat island mitigation: Target Center Green Roof Minneapolis, MN

41 Public Health/Govt Strategies Adaptation Policies/strategies to adapt to health impacts from exposure to air pollutants include: Monitor AQI days Promote awareness Support public health tracking of diseases such as asthma and allergic disease Utilize low allergenic pollen producing plants for landscaping 41

42 Summary Minnesotas climate is changing: Increases in temperature Increases in high dew point temperatures Increases in extreme precipitation events Climate changes will likely increase: Particulate matter Formation of ozone Pollen and mold Certain populations are at greater risk from exposure to pollution and allergens, especially those with existing respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, the elderly, and children Public health awareness, education and coordinated mitigation planning with other agencies can reduce the health impacts 42

43 Thank You Questions? 43 Contact Minnesota Climate and Health Program: 651-201-4893 health.climatechange@state.mn.us http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/climatechange/index.html October 3, 2012

44 Acknowledgements 44 This work was supported by cooperative agreement 5UE1EH000738 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Special thanks to the following people for their contributions to the creation of this training module: Wendy Brunner, Minnesota Department of Health Hillary Carpenter, Minnesota Department of Health Anne Claflin, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Gregory Pratt, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Naomi Shinoda, Minnesota Department of Health

45 References 45 Amann, Swart, Raes, Tuinstra. 2004. A good climate for clean air: linkages between climate change and air pollution. Climatic Change 66: 263– 269. American Lung Association. 2012a. Asthma fact sheets. Accessed online May 7, 2012: http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/asthma/resources/http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/asthma/resources/ American Lung Association. 2012b. COPD. Accessed online May 7, 2012: http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/understanding-copd.html American Lung Association. 2012c. Particle Pollution: State of the Air 2011. Accessed online May 7, 2012: http://www.stateoftheair.org/2012/health-risks/health-risks-particle.html http://www.stateoftheair.org/2012/health-risks/health-risks-particle.html Bell ML, Dominici F, and Samet JM. 2005. A Meta-Analysis of Time-Series Studies of Ozone and Mortality with Comparison to the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Epidemiology 2005; 16:436-445. Bernard SM, Samet JM, Grambsch A, Ebi KL, Romieu I. 2001. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 109, Supplement 2, pp 199-209. California Department of Public Health. 2008. Public Health Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for California. Available online: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/CCDPHP/Documents/CA_Public_Health_Adaptation_Strategies_final.pdf http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/CCDPHP/Documents/CA_Public_Health_Adaptation_Strategies_final.pdf Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2012. Climate and Health, Aero-allergens (website). Accessed May 8, 2012: http://www.cdc.gov/climatechange/effects/allergens.htm http://www.cdc.gov/climatechange/effects/allergens.htm Chan C-C, Wu T-H. 2005. Effects of Ambient Ozone Exposure on Mail Carriers Peak Expiratory Flow Rates.Environ Health Perspec 2005; 113:735-738. Clean Air Taskforce. 2010. The Toll from Coal: An Updated Assessment of Death and Disease from Americas Dirtiest Energy Source. Available online: http://www.catf.us/resources/publications/files/The_Toll_from_Coal.pdfhttp://www.catf.us/resources/publications/files/The_Toll_from_Coal.pdf Gaffney JS, Marley NA. 2009. The impacts of combustion emissions on air quality and climate – From coal to biofuels and beyond. Atmospheric Environment Vol. 43, 23-36. Horstmeyer, SL. 2008. Relative humidity... Relative to what? The dew point temperature... a better approach. Available online: http://www.shorstmeyer.com/wxfaqs/humidity/humidity.html http://www.shorstmeyer.com/wxfaqs/humidity/humidity.html Jacob DJ, Winner DA. 2009. Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment,Vol 34, pp. 51-63. Jacobson M. 2008. On the causal link between carbon dioxide and air pollution mortality. Geophysical Research Letters Vol 35, L03809, doi:10.1029/2007GL031101 Leung LR, Gustafson Jr WI. 2005. Potential regional climate change and implications to US air quality. Levy et al. 2010. Evaluation of the public health impacts of traffic congestion: a health risk assessment. Environmental Health 2010 9:65. Available online: http://www.ehjournal.net/content/9/1/65http://www.ehjournal.net/content/9/1/65

46 References 46 Minnesota Public Radio News. 2011. Pagami fire smoke visible deep into Wis., Mich. September 13, 2011. Available online: http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/09/13/pagami-fire-smoke-visible-deep-into-wisconsin/ http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/09/13/pagami-fire-smoke-visible-deep-into-wisconsin/ Costs of fighting BWCA forest fire reach $21M. October 17, 2011. Available online: http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/10/17/pagami-creek-fire-costs/ http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/10/17/pagami-creek-fire-costs/ National Academy on an Aging Society. 1999. Chronic Conditions: A Challenge for the 21 st Century. Number 1, November 1999. Available online: http://www.agingsociety.org/agingsociety/pdf/chronic.pdfhttp://www.agingsociety.org/agingsociety/pdf/chronic.pdf National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). 2005. Whats the Difference Between Weather and Climate? Available online: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa/climate/climate_weather.html http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa/climate/climate_weather.html National Wildlife Federation. 2010. Extreme Allergies and Global Warming. Available online: www.nwf.org/extremeweatherwww.nwf.org/extremeweather Parker JD, Akinbami LJ, Woodruff TJ. 2009. Air Pollution and Childhood Respiratory Allergies in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117: 140-147. Patz JA. 2000. Climate change and health: new research challenges. Ecosyst Health 6:52–58. Pope CA, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW. 1995. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. vol. 151 no. 3 669-674 Pope CA III. 2000. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and whos at risk? Environ Health Perspect; 108:Supple 4:713-23. Rogers, CA, PM Wayne, EA Macklin, et al. 2006. Interaction of the onset of spring and elevated atmospheric CO 2 on ragweed pollen production. Environmental Health Perspectives 114: 865-869. Seeley M. 2012. Climate Trends and Climate Change in Minnesota: A Review. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/seeley/ http://climate.umn.edu/seeley/ Shea K et al. 2008. Climate change and allergic disease. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.06.032 State Climatology Office. Department of Natural Resources – Division of Ecological and Water Resources and the University of Minnesota – Department of Soil, Water, and Climate. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/http://climate.umn.edu/ Dew Point (http://climate.umn.edu/doc/twin_cities/mspdewpoint.htm) Dew Point July 19, 2011 Technical Analysis (http://climate.umn.edu/pdf/july_19_2011_ technical.pdf) Tager IB, Balmes J, Lurmann F, Ngo L, Alcorn S, and Küenzli N. 2005. Chronic Exposure to Ambient Ozone and Lung Function in Young Adults. Epidemiology 2005; 16:751-759. Union of Concerned Scientists. 2011. Climate Change and Your Health: Rising Temperatures, Worsening Ozone Pollution. Available online: www.ucsusa.org/climateandozonepollution. www.ucsusa.org/climateandozonepollution

47 References 47 U.S. EPA. 2003. Ozone: good up high, bad nearby. Office of Air and Radiation. EPA-451/K-03-001. http://www.epa.gov/glo/pdfs/ozonegb.pdfhttp://www.epa.gov/glo/pdfs/ozonegb.pdf U.S. EPA. 2008. A Review of the Impact of Climate Variability and Change on Aeroallergens and Their Associated Effects (Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-06/164F, 2008. Available online: http://www.epa.gov/research/gems/scinews_aeroallergens.htm http://www.epa.gov/research/gems/scinews_aeroallergens.htm U.S. EPA. 2011. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence and Mortality. Accessed online May 8, 2012: http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm?fuseaction=detail.viewInd&lv=list.listByAlpha&r=235293&subtop=381 http://cfpub.epa.gov/eroe/index.cfm?fuseaction=detail.viewInd&lv=list.listByAlpha&r=235293&subtop=381 U.S. EPA. 2012. Ground-level ozone: Health effects. Accessed May 8, 2012: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/health.htmlhttp://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/health.html Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011a. Minnesota Temperature 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.htmlhttp://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html Western Regional Climate Center. (WRCC) 2011b. Minnesota Precipitation 1890 – 2010: 12 month period ending in December. Generated online November 2011. Available online: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.htmlhttp://www.wrcc.dri.edu/spi/divplot1map.html Zandlo, Jim 2008. Observing the climate. Minnesota State Climatology Office. Available online: http://climate.umn.edu/climateChange/climateChangeObservedNu.htm http://climate.umn.edu/climateChange/climateChangeObservedNu.htm Ziska L, et al. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. PNAS vol 108 no 10.

48 Photo Credits 48 Slide 4: Top image of Donora, PA smog event of 1948 from Prints and Photographs Collection, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, as cited in Helfand et al. 2001. Donora, Pennsylvania: An Environmental Disaster of the 20 th Century, American Journal of Public Health Vol 91, No 4, pp553. Bottom image of London, UK smog event of 1952 from Wikipedia Great Smog, available online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Smog http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Smog Slide 6: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 8: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 15: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 17: 2006 The National Arbor Day Foundation, taken from Extreme Allergies and Global Warming: National Wildlife Federations 2010 available online at: http://www.nwf.org/~/media/PDFs/Global-Warming/Reports/NWF_AllergiesFinal.ashxhttp://www.nwf.org/~/media/PDFs/Global-Warming/Reports/NWF_AllergiesFinal.ashx Slide 19: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 20: Top Image source – Microsoft Clip Art; Bottom Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 22: Image source – U.S. EPA, available online: http://www.epa.gov/airscience/air-particulatematter.htmhttp://www.epa.gov/airscience/air-particulatematter.htm Slide 24: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 25: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 26: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 28: Image source – American Lung Association, available online: http://www.stateoftheair.org/2012/health-risks/health-risks- ozone.htmlhttp://www.stateoftheair.org/2012/health-risks/health-risks- ozone.html Slide 29: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 30: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 31: AQI image source – Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, available online: http://aqi.pca.state.mn.us/http://aqi.pca.state.mn.us/ Slide 33: Giant Ragweed plant image source – Mary Jelks, MD, AAAAI, available online: http://www.aaaai.org/about-the- aaaai/newsroom/media-gallery/photos---graphics--plants.aspxhttp://www.aaaai.org/about-the- aaaai/newsroom/media-gallery/photos---graphics--plants.aspx Slide 34: Image source – Microsoft Clip Art Slide 36: Screen shot of AAAAI pollen report Slide 37: Image source - National Wildlife Federation, 2010 Slide 38: Image source – Source Terry Brennan, http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/imagegallery5.htmlhttp://www.epa.gov/mold/moldcourse/imagegallery5.html Slide 40: Image source – Pam Blixt, City of Minneapolis


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