Presentation on theme: "Pacific Railway Act of 1862 U.S. Government hired Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railway Company to extend railways across the United States. Central."— Presentation transcript:
Pacific Railway Act of 1862 U.S. Government hired Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railway Company to extend railways across the United States. Central Pacific Started in Sacramento, CA Union Pacific Started in Omaha, NE The two railroad companies met in Promontory, Utah to drive the Golden Spike on May 10, 1869
Workers were mainly Chinese and Irish immigrants Working conditions were poor Reasons: Weather Rough terrain
Train problems: Dirty, noisy, uncomfortable 1869 George Westinghouse: Development of air brakes 1887 Granville Woods: Telegraph system for train communication
Scheduling was a major concern Set clocks according to solar time Time differences from town to town created confusion. 1883: National System of Time Zones How many total time zones does the USA have?
Name all 8 time zones.
Native Americans called it the Iron Horse Helped Westward expansion Trade much easier Became crucial to the U.S. economy – shipping costs dropped drastically. Hurt farmers economically Made deals with wealthy businessmen Corruption
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 – put in place for Govt to supervise railroad activities Led to more financial problems (railroads were forced out of business, which led to the Panic of 1893) This caused the Large Firms to start buying up the railways, which paved the way for Big Businesses
Unskilled and semi-skilled labor in abundance New, talented entrepreneurs Oil Inventions New technology that allows mass production Bessemer Process Railroads Changes in business strategy Vertical Integration & Horizontal Consolidation Social Darwinism
Henry Bessemer English businessman William Kelly Kentucky businessman Developed new way of making steel: Melt iron, add carbon, remove impurities
Old way to Manhattan to Brooklyn was ferry Winter: ferry could not run because of ice John Roebling German began building Dies in mid construction Washington Roebling completes Son Disabled by accident during construction Completed on May 24, 1883
Robber barons: business leaders who built fortune from stealing from the public. Capitals of Industry: business leaders served their nation in a positive way.
Charles Darwin – survival of the fittest Social Darwin theory evolved: Society should do as little as possible to interfere with peoples pursuit of success AS A RESULT Government did not TAX or REGULATE businesses!!!
How does the game work? What is the goal of the game?
Monopoly to have complete control of a product or service. Cartel businesses who make the same product – agree to limit supply to keep prices high. Trust separate companies placed under a single managing board – Board of trustees
Andrew Carnegie $ Scottish businessman $Gospel of Wealth (1901). $ Inequality is inevitable and good. $ Vertical Consolidation $ Wealthy should act as trustees for their poorer brethren. $ 80% of fortune went to education. $ At time of death, he had given away – 350 million. $ Scottish businessman $Gospel of Wealth (1901). $ Inequality is inevitable and good. $ Vertical Consolidation $ Wealthy should act as trustees for their poorer brethren. $ 80% of fortune went to education. $ At time of death, he had given away – 350 million.
John D. Rockefeller $ Standard Oil Co. $ Eventually owned all oil companies in US. $ Horizontal consolidation $ 40 companies $ Standard Oil Co. $ Eventually owned all oil companies in US. $ Horizontal consolidation $ 40 companies
Frederick W. Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Frederick W. Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
The Assembly Line Mass production
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The Changing American Labor Force
Long hours Less than $1.00 per week Difficult, dangerous and unhealthy work Heavy machinery Could lose finger, arm or be scalped by machinery Dusty, cold/hot respiratory conditions Corporal punishment
Management vs. Labor Tools of Management Tools of Labor scabs scabs lockout lockout blacklisting blacklisting collective Bargaining collective Bargaining informational picketing informational picketing organized strikes organized strikes
A Striker Confronts a SCAB!
Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly An injury to one is the concern of all!
Goals of the Knights of Labor ù Eight-hour workday. ù Abolition of child and prison labor. ù Equal pay for men and women. ù Safety codes in the workplace.
The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers
How the AF of L Would Help the Workers ù Catered to the skilled worker. ù Represented workers in matters of national legislation. ù Maintained a national strike fund. ù Evangelized the cause of unionism. ù Prevented disputes among the many craft unions. ù Mediated disputes between management and labor. ù Pushed for closed shops.
Homestead Steel Strike (1892) The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers Homestead Steel Works
A Company Town: Pullman, IL A Company Town: Pullman, IL
Pullman Cars A Pullman porter
The Pullman Strike of 1894
Government by injunction!
The Socialists Eugene V. Debs
International Workers of the World (Wobblies)
Big Bill Haywood of the IWW Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism. Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism.
I W W
Labor Union Membership
What were the cost and benefits of the industrial transformation of the Post- Civil War era? Was the growing class division of the time a threat to American democracy? Why or why not?