Standard V: The student will understand the concepts and developments of the late 19th to the early 20 th centuries.
What animal was hunted and heavily relied upon by Plains Indians (it was nearly hunted to extinction by whites)? –Buffalo
What 19 th century technological innovation led to the rapid settlement of the western territories? –Railroads –1862 The Railroad Act was passed which led to the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad on May 10, 1869, in Promontory Point, Utah.
Many Native Americans were forced to live on.... –Reservations scattered throughout the West; they restricted movement of the Plains Indians and left Indians dependent upon the Government for food and supplies
What great Apache leader surrendered to the U.S. military in 1886? –Geronimo –He & his band of followers were relocated to Fort Stodderant, Alabama, (Mt. Vernon near Mobile) and later to Florida.
George Custer and his cavalry were destroyed (killed) by the ___________ at the Battle of ______________. Sioux led by Crazy Horse Little Big Horn in South Dakota Territory
The United States government attempted to settle Indians on plots of land to farm with what act? –The Dawes Severalty Act in 1887 –Indians were given lands & then the rest of the reservation lands were sold off to settlers and Land speculators
What event resulted in over 200 unarmed Sioux (old men, women, and young children) being massacred by U.S. troops in 1890? –Massacre at Wounded Knee –After Sitting Bull died his followers were killed while surrendering to U.S. troops; they had no real weapons
List three complaints of farmers in the late 1800s. –Decline in crop prices –High tariffs –Deflation (decrease in the value of products)
How did the farmers organize themselves to fight big business? –They formed Farmers Alliances (in the North and the South)
What was the name given to the farmers who organized themselves politically during the 1870s and 1880s? –The Grangers
Who invented the light bulb and the electric generator? –Thomas Alva Edison –During his lifetime he invented over 2,000 devices; patented many of them.
Who invented the telephone? –Alexander Graham Bell in 1876
What types of industry was Alabama involved in during the late 1800s? –Steel (in Birmingham and Bessemer) –Before the Bessemer Process Birmingham was known for producing pig iron
What were the captains of Industry referred to during the late 1800s? –Robber Barons
List three important captains of industry during the late 1800s. Andrew Carnegie – steel John D. Rockefeller – oil Cornelius Vanderbilt – Railroads
What theory that said some people were more adapted to business success was used to promote competition in the marketplace? –Social Darwinism
What idea was promoted by Andrew Carnegie that stated the wealthy should give back riches to the community? –Gospel of Wealth –Carnegie was a Philanthropist meaning he gave his wealth away and built libraries, schools, and opera houses around the country
What novelist wrote many fictional stories promoting the rags to riches theme? –Horatio Alger –Many immigrants read his stories and began to believe that they too could achieve great things in the United States
What types of labor problems did early unions try to correct? –Unsafe working conditions (improve the factory conditions) –Low wages (raise wages higher) –Long working hours (shorten the work day to 10 hours and 8 hours instead of 14 hours)
What was the movement called which promoted change in government, business, and social welfare that began in the early 1900s? –Progressivism
What did President Theodore Roosevelt call journalist who were intent on exposing corruption at the turn of the century? –Muckrakers –Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle –Lincoln Steffens wrote The Shame of Cities –Jacob Riis wrote How the Other Half Lives –Ida Tarbell wrote The History of the Standard Oil Co.
What novel was highly acclaimed for exposing problems in the meatpacking industry? –The Jungle –Resulted in the Meat Inspection Act & the Pure Food & Drug Act passed by Congress in 1906
What journalist wrote an expose on John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil? –Ida Tarbell
Who was the African-American who encouraged blacks to seek social justice and equality and was an early leader of the NAACP? –W.E.B. DuBois –Led the Niagara Movement that demanded equality for minorities
What was the movement called that DuBois lead? –The Niagara Movement –Held its first convention in Harpers Ferry Virginia in 1906
Who was the African American who encouraged blacks to learn a trade and also co-founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881? –Booker T. Washington –Former slave that was highly educated –Wrote Up From Slavery (his autobiography) –Believed in what is called the Atlanta Compromise which stated that minorities should achieve economic success and gradually political equality will follow
What African American man was famous for his work as an agricultural scientist? –George Washington Carver –Professor at Tuskegee Institute –His research with the peanut saved Southern agriculture after the Boll Weevil began to destroy the cotton crops.
What famous Supreme Court decision upheld segregation in American society in 1896? –Plessy v. Ferguson –Established the Separate but equal doctrine that was applied to schools, transportation, and public areas until 1955 and the Brown v. Board of Education case
What amendment to the Constitution introduced the idea of a Federal income tax?
What amendment to the Constitution allowed election of senators by popular vote?
What amendment to the Constitution introduced prohibition as a national law?
What president introduced important conservation methods to preserve millions of acres of western lands? –Theodore Roosevelt
What act was passed during Wilsons tenure that was intended to break up monopolies? –Clayton Anti-Trust Act
How did Wilson change the banking system in the U.S. in 1913? –Established the Federal Reserve System
What commission was set up by Wilson to monitor the practices of Businesses? –Federal Trade Commission
What four parties entered a candidate for president in 1912?