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MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS IN THE EARTHS CRUST: 1.) OXYGEN 46% 3-8.)THE REMAINING 25% IS COMPOSED OF Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg 2.) SILICON 29%

3 A MINERAL IS: 1.) NATURALLY OCCURRING 2.) DEFINITE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 3.) INORGANIC SOLID 4.) CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE 5.) DEFINITE SET OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

4 FAMILIES OF MINERALS Native Minerals ARE COMPOSED OF SINGLE ELEMENTS. Au (aurum) GOLD Ag (argentium) SILVER Cu (cuprum) COPPER S SULFUR C GRAPHITE OR DIAMOND

5 MOST MINERALS ARE COMPOSED OF TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS HALITE (NaCl) QUARTZ (SiO2)

6 OXYGEN AND SILICON COMBINE READILY WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH OTHER ELEMENTS TO FORM THIS FAMILY OF MINERALS MOST COMMON FAMILY OF MINERALS AND MAKE UP OVER 90% OF ALL MINERALS THIS IS BECAUSE OXYGEN AND SILICON ARE THE MOST COMMON ELEMENTS IN THE EARTHS CRUST

7 * ANY MINERAL WHICH IS A SILICATE MUST CONTAIN Si (SILICON) AND O (OXYGEN) IN THEIR CHEMICAL FORMULA NOW CIRCLE ALL OF THE MINERALS ON YOUR NOTESHEET WHICH ARE SILICATES ORTHOCLASE AUGITE QUARTZ OLIVINE BIOTITE

8 THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS ARE A REFLECTIONOF THE INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF THEIR ATOMS

9 LEAST USEFUL PROPERTY, CHANGE IN THE CHEMICAL FORMULA WILL VARY THE COLOR OF THE MINERAL. (QUARTZ) SiO2 ROSE QUARTZ CONTAINS TITANIUM OXIDE AND MANGANESE OXIDE TO MAKE A ROSE COLOR CRYSTAL QUARTZ

10 METALLIC- LOOKS LIKE METAL IN THE WAY THE MINERAL REFLECTS LIGHT (GALENA OR PYRITE)

11 NON-METALLIC - DOES NOT LOOK LIKE POLISHED METAL, SO OTHER TERMS ARE USED VITREOUS- SHINY, GLASSLIKE (QUARTZ) PEARLY LOOKS LIKE PEARLS WHEN LIGHT IS REFLECTED OFF OF THE SURFACE (OPAL)

12 EARTHY- NO SHINE AT ALL (BAUXITE) ADAMANTINE- BRILLIANT GLOW, BEAM OF LIGHT AT A CERTAIN ANGLE (DIAMOND) WAXY- DULL SHINE LIKE CANDLE WAX (SULFUR, OLIVINE)

13 THE COLOR OF A MINERALS POWDER RUB THE MINERAL AGAINST A STREAK PLATE AND OBSERVE THE POWDERS COLOR HOW DO YOU FIND THE STREAK COLOR OF A MINERAL?

14 CLEAVAGE- TENDENCY OF A MINERAL TO SEPARATE ALONG PLANES OF WEAKNESS ONE PLANE OF WEAKNESS BASAL CLEAVAGE (MICA) TWO PLANES OF CLEAVAGE AT 90* (ORTHOCLASE)

15 THREE PLANES OF WEAKNESS AT 90* = CUBIC (HALITE) THREE PLANES NOT AT 90* = RHOMBOHEDRAL (CALCITE)

16 FRACTURE- NO PLANES OF WEAKNESS SO THE MINERAL BREAKS ALONG IRREGULAR SURFACES CONCHOIDAL- SURFACES ARE SOMEWHAT ROUNDED, SHELL-LIKE (QUARTZ)

17 UNEVEN- ROUGH SURFACE, NO DISTINGUISHABLE PATTERN FIBROUS- JAGGED SURFACE LIKE FIBERS (WOLLASTONITE)

18 RESISTANCE TO BE SCRATCHED; IS VERY USEFUL SINCE A MINERALS HARDNESS IS CONSTANT SCALE TO MEASURE HARDNESS WAS DEVELOPED BY FRIEDRICH MOH IN 1812 HARDNESS IS MEASURED ON A SCALE FROM 1 BEING THE LOWEST TO 10 BEING THE HIGHEST. TO DETERMINE THE HARDNESS OF A MINERAL YOU MUST TRY TO SCRATCH THE MINERAL AGAINST A GLASS PLATE

19 FINGERNAIL IS A 2.5 GLASS IS A TALC TALCUM POWDER, BABY POWDER GYPSUM BUILDING MATERIALS (SHEETROCK) CALCITE CEMENTS FLUORITE TOOTHPASTE APATITE FERTILIZER FELDSPAR FLOOR TILES QUARTZ WATCHES, ABRASIVES TOPAZ GEMSTONES (EMERALD) CORUNDUM GEMSTONES (RUBY & SAPHIRE) DIAMOND SAW BLADES, AGIRLS BEST FRIEND MINERAL NAME TYPICAL USES


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