Presentation on theme: "World War I Ch. 19. MAIN causes of WWI M- Militarism –countries build up their armies A- Alliances –Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy –Triple."— Presentation transcript:
World War I Ch. 19
MAIN causes of WWI M- Militarism –countries build up their armies A- Alliances –Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy –Triple Entente- Britain, France, Russia I- Imperialism –Competition over land N- Nationalism –Everyone thought their country was the greatest & wanted to promote their countrys culture & interests
Spark that lit the fuse for WWI June Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austro- Hungarian throne) & his wife visit Sarajevo, Bosnia Gavrilo Princip (Serbian nationalist, member of the Black Hand) assassinated the Archduke and his wife –19 yrs old – too young for death penalty (got 20 years, died of tuberculosis in prison) –"I am not a criminal, for I destroyed a bad man. I thought I was right."
Timeline to War! July 28, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 30- Russia mobilizes troops (towards German border) in defense of Serbia Aug. 1- Germany declares war on Russia Aug. 3- Germany declares war on France, invades Belgium Aug. 4- Britain declares war on Germany Aug. 6- Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia Aug. 12- France and Britain declare war on Austria-Hungary
Central Powers vs. The Allies Central Powers- Germany & Austria- Hungary Allies- Britain, France, Russia
America! Where are You? Pres. Wilson had declared the U.S. neutral –Many immigrants sympathized with their country of origin –Most Americans supported the Allies and hoped for their victory, though they did not want to join the conflict
Moving Toward War Britain practicing a blockade (to prevent supplies getting to Germany) –Germany deployed U-boats (unterseeboot- underwater boat)– they would sink (w/o warning) ANY ship they found in the waters around Britain U-boat 534
The Lusitania NOTICE! –TRAVELLERS intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk. IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY, Washington, D.C. April 22, 1915 Washington, D.C. DONT WRITE THE NOTE BELOW!
The Lusitania May 7, a German u-boat sunk The Lusitania –KILLED 1,200 (128 Americans) –Americans regarded the attack as an act of terrorism, not war/ Others said that the passengers traveling on ships of foreign nations did so at their own risk –Pres. Wilson said the U.S. was too proud to fight Sussex Pledge- Germany & U.S. meeting, Germany promised, with certain conditions, to sink no more merchant ships without warning
Zimmermann Telegram/Note Jan Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico (intercepted by Britain) –If Mexico attacked the U.S. (when Germany won WWI), Germany would get Mexico back all the land they had lost to the U.S.
This Means War! Feb. 1, Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare Feb. 3-Mar. 21- GY sank 6 American merchant ships w/o warning Apr. 2, Pres. Wilson asks for a declaration of war against Germany April 6, U.S. declares war on Germany
WWI Propaganda Posters
Building up the Military Selective Service –Required all men b/w 21 & 30 to register for the draft (A lottery randomly determined the order they were called before the draft board (2.8 mil. drafted/ 2 mil. volunteered) Dont have to write! Conflict and Number of Inductions: WWI: (Sept Nov. 1918) 2,810,296 WWII: (Nov Oct. 1946) 10,110,104 Korea: (June 1950-June 1953) 1,529,539 Vietnam: (Aug Feb 1973) 1,857,304
Building up the Military African Americans –400,000 drafted (42,000 of those served in combat overseas) –Encountered discrimination & segregation Women –1 st war to serve in the armed forces (noncombat positions) Nurses, clerical workers, radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, torpedo assemblers
Organizing Industry Paying for the War –U.S. spending $44 mil. a day (by end of war) –Raised income tax rates –Liberty Bonds & Victory Bonds (loaning the govt. money)
Organizing Industry War Industries Board –Told manufacturers what they could/could not produce Food Administration –Victory gardens & daylight savings time created
You better support the war (or else)! Committee on Public Information- task of selling the war to the American people (used songwriters, speakers, entertainers to help sway public opinion in favor of the war)
You better support the war (or else)! Espionage- spying to acquire secret govt. info. –Espionage Act- set penalties/prison terms Penalized disloyalty, giving false reports, or interfering with the war effort –Sedition Act- made illegal any public expression of opposition to the war –1,500 prosecutions & 1,000 convictions!
Dont need to write this slide! 1 st Amendment- Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press Schenck v. the United States (1919)- (decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during WWI). Supreme Court ruled that an individuals freedom of speech could be curbed when the words uttered constitute a clear and present danger (ex. Someone yelling Fire! in a crowded theater)
*Dont write! Life in The Numbers $687- average income for industrial workers $355- average income for farm laborers $328- average income for a teacher $ cost of a bicycle $1.15- cost of a baseball $1.00- average cost of a hotel room.39- cost of a dozen eggs.05- cost of a glass of cola.07- cost of a large roll of toilet paper
Combat in WWI Trench Warfare –Used the machine gun in fighting –no mans land- area b/w the trenches –Going over the Top Troops raced over the top to face artillery, mines, & machine gun (Fun!)
New War Technology Machine gun Poison Gas (gas masks then created) Tanks Airplanes (strapped machine guns on for dogfights)
United States troops & tactics Doughboys- American soldiers (inexperienced, fresh/new, boosted morale of Allied troops) Admiral Sims- encouraged use of convoys (merchants/troop ships surrounded by warships). Cut down on Allied ship losses.
Revolution in Russia Mar riots broke out over lack of food & fuel Mar. 15- Czar Nicholas II pressured to abdicate his throne –Nov.- The Bolsheviks led by Lenin overthrew the govt. & established communism (Czar & his family assassinated) –Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Mar. 1918) Russia pulled out of war (with Germany) –lost lots of territory Lenin Nicholas II
The War Ends Germany war effort stalls & they are pushed back by Allied Forces –Revolution in Austria-Hungary (they surrender) –Revolution in Germany (Kaiser forced to step down) –At the 11 th hour on the 11 th day of the 11 th month, Germany signs an armistice (cease-fire)
Treaty of Versailles- June 28, 1919 Fourteen Points (Wilsons Plan)- League of Nation (14 th point)– would help to preserve peace & prevent future wars –Allies didnt accept Wilsons plan (except League of Nations)U.S. refuses to be in League of Nations Germany –Pay $33 bil. in reparations –Stripped of its armed forces –Had to accept guilt for the outbreak of WWI & destruction after The Big Four- (From left), Prime Minister David Lloyd George (UK), Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau (France), and Pres. Woodrow Wilson (United States) PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE