2MAIN causes of WWI M- Militarism A- Alliances I- Imperialism countries build up their armiesA- AlliancesTriple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, ItalyTriple Entente- Britain, France, RussiaI- ImperialismCompetition over landN- NationalismEveryone thought their country was the greatest & wanted to promote their country’s culture & interests
3“Spark that lit the fuse for WWI” June Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austro-Hungarian throne) & his wife visit Sarajevo, BosniaGavrilo Princip (Serbian nationalist, member of the “Black Hand”) assassinated the Archduke and his wife19 yrs old – too young for death penalty (got 20 years, died of tuberculosis in prison)"I am not a criminal, for I destroyed a bad man. I thought I was right."
4Timeline to War! July 28, 1914- Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 30- Russia mobilizes troops (towards German border) in defense of SerbiaAug. 1- Germany declares war on RussiaAug. 3- Germany declares war on France, invades BelgiumAug. 4- Britain declares war on GermanyAug. 6- Austria-Hungary declares war on RussiaAug. 12- France and Britain declare war on Austria-Hungary
5Central Powers vs. The Allies Central Powers- Germany & Austria-HungaryAllies- Britain, France, Russia
6America! Where are You? Pres. Wilson had declared the U.S. neutral Many immigrants sympathized with their country of originMost Americans supported the Allies and hoped for their victory, though they did not want to join the conflict
7Moving Toward WarBritain practicing a blockade (to prevent supplies getting to Germany)Germany deployed U-boats (unterseeboot- underwater boat)– they would sink (w/o warning) ANY ship they found in the waters around BritainU-boat534
8The Lusitania DON’T WRITE THE NOTE BELOW! NOTICE! TRAVELLERS intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk.IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY, Washington, D.C. April 22, 1915
9The Lusitania May 7, 1915- a German u-boat sunk The Lusitania KILLED 1,200 (128 Americans)Americans regarded the attack as an act of terrorism, not war/ Others said that the passengers traveling on ships of foreign nations did so at their own riskPres. Wilson said the U.S. was “too proud to fight”Sussex Pledge- Germany & U.S. meeting, Germany promised, with certain conditions, to sink no more merchant ships without warning
10Zimmermann Telegram/Note Jan Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico (intercepted by Britain)If Mexico attacked the U.S. (when Germany won WWI), Germany would get Mexico back all the land they had lost to the U.S.
11This Means War!Feb. 1, Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfareFeb. 3-Mar. 21- GY sank 6 American merchant ships w/o warningApr. 2, Pres. Wilson asks for a declaration of war against GermanyApril 6, U.S. declares war on Germany
13Building up the Military Selective ServiceRequired all men b/w 21 & 30 to register for the draft (A lottery randomly determined the order they were called before the draft board (2.8 mil. drafted/ 2 mil. volunteered)Don’t have to write!Conflict and Number of Inductions:WWI: (Sept Nov. 1918)2,810,296WWII: (Nov Oct. 1946)10,110,104Korea: (June 1950-June 1953) 1,529,539Vietnam: (Aug Feb 1973)1,857,304
14Building up the Military African Americans400,000 drafted (42,000 of those served in combat overseas)Encountered discrimination & segregationWomen1st war to serve in the armed forces (noncombat positions)Nurses, clerical workers, radio operators, electricians, pharmacists, photographers, chemists, torpedo assemblers
15Organizing Industry Paying for the War U.S. spending $44 mil. a day (by end of war)Raised income tax ratesLiberty Bonds & Victory Bonds (loaning the govt. money)
16Organizing Industry War Industries Board Told manufacturers what they could/could not produceFood AdministrationVictory gardens & daylight savings time created
17You better support the war (or else)! Committee on Public Information- task of “selling” the war to the American people (used songwriters, speakers, entertainers to help sway public opinion in favor of the war)
18You better support the war (or else)! Espionage- spying to acquire secret govt. info.Espionage Act- set penalties/prison termsPenalized disloyalty, giving false reports, or interfering with the war effortSedition Act- made illegal any public expression of opposition to the war1,500 prosecutions & 1,000 convictions!
19Don’t need to write this slide! 1st Amendment- “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press”Schenck v. the United States (1919)- (decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during WWI). Supreme Court ruled that an individual’s freedom of speech could be curbed when the words uttered constitute a “clear and present danger” (ex. Someone yelling “Fire!” in a crowded theater)
20*Don’t write! Life in 1915- “The Numbers” $687- average income for industrial workers$355- average income for farm laborers$328- average income for a teacher$ cost of a bicycle$1.15- cost of a baseball$1.00- average cost of a hotel room.39- cost of a dozen eggs.05- cost of a glass of cola.07- cost of a large roll of toilet paper
21Combat in WWI Trench Warfare Used the machine gun in fighting “no man’s land”- area b/w the trenches“Going over the Top”Troops raced over the top to face artillery, mines, & machine gun (Fun!)
22New War Technology Machine gun Poison Gas (gas masks then created) TanksAirplanes (strapped machine guns on for “dogfights”)
23United States troops & tactics “Doughboys”- American soldiers (inexperienced, fresh/new, boosted morale of Allied troops)Admiral Sims- encouraged use of convoys (merchants/troop ships surrounded by warships). Cut down on Allied ship losses.
24Revolution in RussiaMar riots broke out over lack of food & fuelMar. 15- Czar Nicholas II pressured to abdicate his throneNov.- The Bolsheviks led by Lenin overthrew the govt. & established communism (Czar & his family assassinated)Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Mar. 1918)Russia pulled out of war (with Germany)lost lots of territoryNicholas IILenin
25The War EndsGermany war effort stalls & they are pushed back by Allied ForcesRevolution in Austria-Hungary (they surrender)Revolution in Germany (Kaiser forced to step down)At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month, Germany signs an armistice (cease-fire)
26Treaty of Versailles- June 28, 1919 Fourteen Points (Wilson’s Plan)- League of Nation (14th point)– would help to preserve peace & prevent future warsAllies didn’t accept Wilson’s plan (except League of Nations)—U.S. refuses to be in League of NationsGermanyPay $33 bil. in reparationsStripped of its armed forcesHad to accept guilt for the outbreak of WWI & destruction afterThe Big Four- (From left), Prime Minister David Lloyd George (UK), Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau (France), and Pres. Woodrow Wilson (United States)PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE