Presentation on theme: "France’s Background Last ½ of 15 th c. –France enjoyed a period of peace. Had driven out English and were able to solidify powerHad driven out English."— Presentation transcript:
France’s Background Last ½ of 15 th c. –France enjoyed a period of peace. Had driven out English and were able to solidify powerHad driven out English and were able to solidify power Peace doesn’t last Rivalry with Charles V of Spain and religious conflict plunged France into turmoil 1500’s torn by war1500’s torn by war
Religious Strife 1560s-1590s-war btw Catholic (majority) and Huguenots. St. Bartholomew’s Day (Catholic holiday- Aug. 24, 1572)-Hugenots and Catholic nobles gathered for royal wedding. Led by Catholics-3,000 Huguenots slaughtered. Over next few days-1,000s more killed.Over next few days-1,000s more killed. Complete breakdown in FranceComplete breakdown in France
Bringing Peace to a Shattered Land-Henry IV 1589-Henry IV-Huguenot prince inherited the throne 4 years-fought against Cath. opposition to gain control of France. Converts to Catholicism BUT-issues Edict of Nantes-granting religious toleration and other freedoms.
Henry IV cont. Wants to repair France-Expands role of govt-royal officials administered justice, improved roads, built bridges, and revived agriculture. By building royal bureaucracy and reducing influence of nobles, Henry IV laid foundation on which French monarchs would build absolute power.
Cardinal Richelieu Strengthens Royal Authority Henry IV-killed by assassin in 1610 Louis XIII (9 yrs) takes the throne. 1624-Louis appointed Cardinal Richelieu as chief minister-devotes 18 yrs to strengthening central govt.
An Absolute Monarch Rises Sought to destroy power of Hugenots and nobles…again wants to strengthen central govt. Disorder yet again… Richelieu passes power to Cardinal Mazarin and Louis XIV inherits throne at age 5 Fronde-uprising of nobles, merchants, peasants, and the urban poor to protect royal power. Cardinal Mazarin dies when Louis XIV is 23- and he decides to rule for himself. Believed in divine right to rule- “I am the State”--Known as Sun King
During reign-didn’t call meeting of Estates General Followed policies of Richelieu to strengthen state. Expanded bureaucracy and appointed intendents-royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out his policies. jobs for wealthy middle- class Why?
Strengthening the Army Strengthens army into best of Europe State fed, trained, paid and supplied up to 300,000 soldiers. Why is this significant?
Colbert Builds France’s Finances Jean-Baptiste Colbert-imposed mercantilist policies to bolster the economy. New lands for faming, encouraged industry, built luxury trading. Imposed high tariffs on imported goods Regulated trade to the colonies Helped make France wealthy BUT Louis XIV’s court and foreign wars were too expensive even for Colbert’s genius policies
Louis XIV’s Versailles: Symbol of Royal Power Makes Versailles most magnificent building in Europe. Fine paintings, statues, chandeliers, mirrors, royal gardens, flowers, trees etc. Symbolizes-wealth and power Housed King, nobles, officials and servants
Conducting Court Ceremony Had elaborate ceremonies that showed his importance. Daily-levee-or rising ritual Significance-by luring nobles to take part it eliminated them as a threat.Significance-by luring nobles to take part it eliminated them as a threat. Successful as it keeps their prestige protected and they are exempt from taxes.
Louis XIV’s Patronizes the Arts French styles became model for all of Europe New forms of dance, drama, ballet, gained popularity at the French court. Sponsored the French Academies.
Strong State Declines Louis XIV-ruled for 72 years. France=strongest state in Europe but sets up trouble for the future
Strong State Declines 1. Costly Wars-tried to expand borders- but Dutch and English fought back for balance of power.1. Costly Wars-tried to expand borders- but Dutch and English fought back for balance of power. 2. Philip V (Louis XIV’s grandson) took Spanish throne in 1700-and war broke out to stop union of France and Spain.- War of Spanish Succession2. Philip V (Louis XIV’s grandson) took Spanish throne in 1700-and war broke out to stop union of France and Spain.- War of Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht-Philip remained Spanish monarch-France agreed to never unify
Persecuting Huguenots 3. Louis XIV-revoked Edict of Nantes in 1685 Over 100,000 Huguenots fledOver 100,000 Huguenots fled Settled in England, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, and the AmericasSettled in England, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, and the Americas He lost a great work force-hurts economyHe lost a great work force-hurts economy