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BELL RINGER 1) Where did the Constitutional Convention meet? 2) What are the 3 branches of Government? 3) Name three rights that the Bill of Rights gives.

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Presentation on theme: "BELL RINGER 1) Where did the Constitutional Convention meet? 2) What are the 3 branches of Government? 3) Name three rights that the Bill of Rights gives."— Presentation transcript:

1 BELL RINGER 1) Where did the Constitutional Convention meet? 2) What are the 3 branches of Government? 3) Name three rights that the Bill of Rights gives.

2 Chapter II The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1 Background to the French Revolution

3 Background Long-range problems – 1) condition of the French society. - 2) France was divided in to three orders or estates { First, Second, Third}

4 1 st Clergy 2 nd Nobility 3 rd Commoners 1 percent 98 percent Estates in France

5 Background 130,000 people made up the 1 st estate, clergy (Priests) 350,000 people made up the 2 nd estate, nobility (Wealthy) 98 % were Commoners (Peasants were 80 % of the Total Population)

6 Bourgeoisie Who were the Bourgeoisie? Middle Class (part of the 3 rd estate) 8% of the total population. Owned about 25 % of the land. These men read works such as Locke and Rousseau. (Revolutionary ideas)

7 LOUIS XVI OF FRANCE King of France and Navarre from 1774 until found guilty of treason, and executed on 21 January January1793

8 LOUIS XVI OF FRANCE His execution signaled the end of the absolutist monarchy in France and would eventually bring about the rise of Napoleon.absolutistNapoleon Seen as an honest man with good intentions but who was probably unfit for the Herculean task of reforming the monarchy, and he was used as a scapegoat by the Revolutionaries

9 Marie Antoinette Was known for her extravagance. She was the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria.Maria Theresa of Austria She was married to Louis XVI of France at age 14 Louis XVI of France

10 FRENCH REVOLUTION The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization.European Western

11 French Revolution The immediate cause of the Revolution was the near collapse of the govt finances. The poor reached as high as 1/3 of the population. The govt was overspending on court life.

12 FRENCH REVOLUTION The slogan of the French Revolution was "Liberté, égalité, fraternité, ou la mort!" ("Liberty, equality, fraternity, or death!").Liberté, égalité, fraternité This slogan outlived the revolution, later becoming the rallying cry of activists, both militant and non-violent, who promote democracy or overthrow oppressive governments.

13 CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Many interrelated political and socioeconomic factors contributed to the French Revolution. socioeconomic To some extent, the old order succumbed to its own rigidity in the face of a changing world.

14 CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION It fell to the ambitions of a rising bourgeoisie, allied with aggrieved peasants, wage-earners, and individuals of all classes who had come under the influence of the ideas of the Enlightenment. bourgeoisie Enlightenment

15 Causes of the French Revolution include the following: A poor economic situation and an unmanageable national debt were both caused and inflamed by the burden of a grossly inequitable system of taxation, the massive spending of Louis XVI and the many wars of the 18th century;national debttaxationLouis XVI

16 Causes of the French Revolution include the following: A resentment of royal absolutism absolutism An aspiration for liberty and republicanism The rise of Enlightenment idealsEnlightenment

17 Causes of the French Revolution include the following: Food scarcity in the months immediately before the revolutionFood scarcity High unemployment and high bread prices resulting in the inability to purchase foodunemployment The failure of Louis XVI to deal effectively with these problems.Louis XVI

18 REVIEW What were 2 causes for the French Revolution? When did the French Revolution occur? Who was Louis XVI? Who was Marie Antoinette?

19 BELL RINGER 1)What were 2 causes for the French Revolution? 2)When did the French Revolution occur? 3)Who was Louis XVI? 4)Who was Marie Antoinette?

20 The Estates-General of 1789 The calling of the Estates- Generally led to growing concern on the part of the opposition that the government would attempt to gerrymander an assembly to its liking.gerrymander

21 The Estates-General of 1789 The 1614 Estates had consisted of equal numbers of representatives of each estate, and voting had been by order, with the First Estate (the clergy), the Second Estate (the nobility), and the Third Estate (middle class and peasants) each receiving one vote.First Estate Second EstateThird Estate

22 The Estates-General of 1789 Abbé Sieyès famously wrote the pamphlet What is the Third Estate, published in January 1789, pointed out the next step: "What is the third Estate? Everything. What has it been up to now in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something herein."Abbé Sieyès

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24 The Estates-General of 1789 the Third Estate proceeded with verification of its own powers and invited the other two estates to take part, but did not to wait for them to act.

25 The Estates-General of 1789 Then they voted a measure far more radical, declaring themselves the National Assembly, an assembly not of the Estates but of "the People".National Assembly They invited the other orders to join them, but made it clear they intended to conduct the nation's affairs with or without them.

26 Tennis Court Oath Louis XVI ordered the closure of the Salle des États where the Assembly met. The weather did not allow an outdoor meeting, so the Assembly moved their deliberations to a nearby, indoor, tennis court, where they proceeded to swear the Tennis Court Oath (20 June 1789), under which they agreed not to separate until they had given France a constitution. Tennis Court Oath20 June1789 constitution

27 National Constituent Assembly A majority of the representatives of the clergy soon joined the 3 rd Estate, as did forty-seven members of the nobility. On July 9 th 1789 the Assembly reconstituted itself as the National Constituent AssemblyNational Constituent Assembly

28 LOUIS XVIS RESPONSE Louis XVI stayed at Versailles and refused the laws passed by the Assembly.

29 The storming of the Bastille

30 The Storming of the Bastille On 14 July 1789, after hours of combat, the insurgents seized the Bastille prison, killing the governor and several of his guards.14 July1789Bastilleprison The Bastille served as a potent symbol of everything hated under the ancient regime. The march to the palace was next.

31 ASSEMBLYS RESPONSE Parisian women armed with pitchforks, swords, and muskets, marched to Versailles. They forced the king to accept the laws.

32 ASSEMBLYS RESPONSE After various scuffles and incidents, the king and the royal family allowed themselves to be brought back from Versailles to Paris. The royal family was held prisoner in Paris.

33 AUGUST DECREES On August the National Constituent Assembly abolished feudalism, in what is known as the August Decrees; sweeping away both the rights of the Second Estate and the tithes gathered by the First Estate. August Decreestithes In the course of a few hours, nobles, clergy, towns, provinces, companies, and cities lost their special privileges.

34 Destruction of the Old Regime Looking to the United States Declaration of Independence for a model, on August 26,1789, the Assembly published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Like the U.S. Declaration, it comprised a statement of principles rather than a constitution with legal effect.

35 Destruction of the Old Regime Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, access to office based on taxes, and exemption from taxation.

36 Review What was the Tennis Court Oath? What was the National Assembly? What was the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen? Why was the storming of the Bastille so important?


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