5Background 130,000 people made up the 1st estate, clergy (Priests) 350,000 people made up the 2nd estate, nobility (Wealthy)98 % were Commoners (Peasants were 80 % of the Total Population)
6Bourgeoisie Who were the Bourgeoisie? Middle Class (part of the 3rd estate)8% of the total population.Owned about 25 % of the land.These men read works such as Locke and Rousseau. (Revolutionary ideas)
7LOUIS XVI OF FRANCE King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1792. found guilty of treason, and executed on 21 January 1793.
8LOUIS XVI OF FRANCEHis execution signaled the end of the absolutist monarchy in France and would eventually bring about the rise of Napoleon.Seen as an honest man with good intentions but who was probably unfit for the Herculean task of reforming the monarchy, and he was used as a scapegoat by the Revolutionaries
9Marie Antoinette Was known for her extravagance. She was the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria.She was married to Louis XVI of France at age 14
10FRENCH REVOLUTIONThe French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization.
11French RevolutionThe immediate cause of the Revolution was the near collapse of the gov’t finances.The poor reached as high as 1/3 of the population.The gov’t was overspending on court life.
12FRENCH REVOLUTIONThe slogan of the French Revolution was "Liberté, égalité, fraternité, ou la mort!" ("Liberty, equality, fraternity, or death!").This slogan outlived the revolution, later becoming the rallying cry of activists, both militant and non-violent, who promote democracy or overthrow oppressive governments.
13CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Many interrelated political and socioeconomic factors contributed to the French Revolution.To some extent, the old order succumbed to its own rigidity in the face of a changing world.
14CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION It fell to the ambitions of a rising bourgeoisie, allied with aggrieved peasants, wage-earners, and individuals of all classes who had come under the influence of the ideas of the Enlightenment.
15Causes of the French Revolution include the following: A poor economic situation and an unmanageable national debt were both caused and inflamed by the burden of a grossly inequitable system of taxation, the massive spending of Louis XVI and the many wars of the 18th century;
16Causes of the French Revolution include the following: A resentment of royal absolutismAn aspiration for liberty and republicanismThe rise of Enlightenment ideals
17Causes of the French Revolution include the following: Food scarcity in the months immediately before the revolutionHigh unemployment and high bread prices resulting in the inability to purchase foodThe failure of Louis XVI to deal effectively with these problems.
18REVIEW What were 2 causes for the French Revolution? When did the French Revolution occur?Who was Louis XVI?Who was Marie Antoinette?
19BELL RINGER 1)What were 2 causes for the French Revolution? 2)When did the French Revolution occur?3)Who was Louis XVI?4)Who was Marie Antoinette?
20The Estates-General of 1789 The calling of the Estates- Generally led to growing concern on the part of the opposition that the government would attempt to gerrymander an assembly to its liking.
21The Estates-General of 1789 The 1614 Estates had consisted of equal numbers of representatives of each estate, and voting had been by order, with the First Estate (the clergy), the Second Estate (the nobility), and the Third Estate (middle class and peasants) each receiving one vote.
22The Estates-General of 1789 Abbé Sieyès famously wrote the pamphlet What is the Third Estate, published in January 1789, pointed out the next step: "What is the third Estate? Everything. What has it been up to now in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something herein."
24The Estates-General of 1789 the Third Estate proceeded with verification of its own powers and invited the other two estates to take part, but did not to wait for them to act.
25The Estates-General of 1789 Then they voted a measure far more radical, declaring themselves the National Assembly, an assembly not of the Estates but of "the People".They invited the other orders to join them, but made it clear they intended to conduct the nation's affairs with or without them.
26Tennis Court OathLouis XVI ordered the closure of the Salle des États where the Assembly met.The weather did not allow an outdoor meeting, so the Assembly moved their deliberations to a nearby, indoor, tennis court, where they proceeded to swear the Tennis Court Oath (20 June 1789), under which they agreed not to separate until they had given France a constitution.
27National Constituent Assembly A majority of the representatives of the clergy soon joined the 3rd Estate, as did forty-seven members of the nobility.On July 9th 1789 the Assembly reconstituted itself as the National Constituent Assembly
28LOUIS XVI’S RESPONSELouis XVI stayed at Versailles and refused the laws passed by the Assembly.
30The Storming of the Bastille On 14 July 1789, after hours of combat, the insurgents seized the Bastille prison, killing the governor and several of his guards.The Bastille served as a potent symbol of everything hated under the ancient regime.The march to the palace was next.
31ASSEMBLY’S RESPONSEParisian women armed with pitchforks, swords, and muskets, marched to Versailles.They forced the king to accept the laws.
32ASSEMBLY’S RESPONSEAfter various scuffles and incidents, the king and the royal family allowed themselves to be brought back from Versailles to Paris.The royal family was held prisoner in Paris.
33AUGUST DECREESOn August the National Constituent Assembly abolished feudalism, in what is known as the August Decrees; sweeping away both the rights of the Second Estate and the tithes gathered by the First Estate.In the course of a few hours, nobles, clergy, towns, provinces, companies, and cities lost their special privileges.
34Destruction of the Old Regime Looking to the United States Declaration of Independence for a model, on August 26,1789, the Assembly published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen . Like the U.S. Declaration, it comprised a statement of principles rather than a constitution with legal effect.
35Destruction of the Old Regime Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, access to office based on taxes, and exemption from taxation.
36Review What was the Tennis Court Oath? What was the National Assembly? What was the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen?Why was the storming of the Bastille so important?