Presentation on theme: "STRUCTURE OF MATTER According to the modern atomic model, protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus, and electrons are found outside the nucleus in."— Presentation transcript:
1 STRUCTURE OF MATTERAccording to the modern atomic model, protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus, and electrons are found outside the nucleus in a region called the _____________.Protons have a _________ charge.Electrons have a ________ charge.__________ are neutral, they have no charge.
2 Protons and Neutrons are made up of smaller particles called ______ Protons and Neutrons are made up of smaller particles called ______. There is an ________ and a _________ held together by particles called ______._______ have more up quarks than down quarks.________ have more down quarks than up quarks.
3 ELECTRON ENERGY LEVELS The first energy level, closest to the nucleus, can hold only ___ electrons (e-).The second energy level can hold only ___ e-.The third energy level is stable when it has__ e-. (can actually hold 18 in all, but only after the fourth energy level has at least 2)
4 Maximum # of e- the orbital can contain 1 s2Energy level2 s2 p63 s2 p6 d104 s2 p6 d10 f145 s2 p6 d10 f146 s2 p6 d107 s2 p6
5 IONS _______ atoms (or groups of atoms) are called ions. An atom becomes charged by either gaining or losing one or more _________.An atom that has lost one or more e- is a ________ ion (cation). The atom now has more protons than e-.An atom that has gained one or more e- is a ________ ion (anion). The atom now has more e- than protons.
9 Generally, atoms do not gain or lose protons. An atom will become an ion only by gainingor losing e-. The number of protons (orneutrons) will only change during nuclearfission, nuclear fusion, or radioactive decay.What charge will an atom have if it loses 3 e-?What charge will an atom have if it gains 2 e-?
10 A ________ is any two or more __________ elements combined. The smallest unit of any ________ (example: water) that still retains the properties of the substance is a ________. A __________ is any two or more atoms combined by sharing electrons. (non-metals only, even two of the same element)A ________ is any two or more __________ elements combined.Chemical reactions involve ___________ of atoms, not the destruction or creation of them.
11 FORMULAa representation of one ____________ of a substance by showing the ________ of each element in the substance and the _________ of each element in the moleculeExample: H2O is the formula for water because it represents one molecule of water. If you broke the substance down any farther, it would not be water.
12 If you have a formula like C7H5(NO2)3 , you would have __ carbon atoms, __ hydrogen atoms, __ nitrogen atoms, and __ oxygen atoms.Any time you have atoms inside a parenthesis ( ) with a subscript number after the ( ), you multiply the number after the ( ) by the number of each element inside the ( ) to obtain the total number of atoms for each element inside the ( ).
13 The group of atoms inside the ( ) is called a _________ ____. has a chargemore than one