Presentation on theme: "Cycling of Matter. Water, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen are four of the most important substances for life. An ecosystem must be able to cycle these in."— Presentation transcript:
Water, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen are four of the most important substances for life. An ecosystem must be able to cycle these in order to support life. Cross out the *** portions of your notes.
Water Cycle Life cannot exist without the water cycle. The water cycle continuously moves water between the atmosphere, the land and the oceans. It all starts with the condensation of water from water vapor. Condensation=the formation of water droplets from water vapor
Water Cycle Terms to Know Precipitation- water returning to the surface of the earth in the form of rain, snow, fog, or hail Percolation- some of the water that falls to the earth moves into the soil and becomes groundwater.
Groundwater Groundwater is water that is stored in aquifers beneath Earth’s surface. As it percolates through the soil, impurities and pollutants are mostly filtered out. Groundwater can be accessed with wells.
Runoff into rivers, lakes, oceans The surface water that doesn’t percolate into the soil runs off into rivers, lakes, and eventually oceans. The Amazon River
Evaporation Water is heated by the sun and re-enters the atmosphere by evaporation (the process by which liquid water turns into water vapor)
Transpiration Water also evaporates from trees and plants in a process called transpiration. Over 10% of Earth’s clouds form from this type of water evaporation. This process cools the leaves and draws water up from the roots.
On your own Work on creating pictures of each of the steps in the water cycle. They must be colorful and easy for you to understand. I have colored pencils, markers, etc. I want to see a process, not lines going crazy directions.
Carbon & Oxygen Cycle Carbon and oxygen are critical for life on Earth, and their cycles are tied closely together. The Carbon Cycle is the continuous movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back.
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis-the process by which energy from light is converted into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds Formula: 6CO2 + 6 H2O + light → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Note that in the process of building carbohydrates (stored energy), plants release oxygen into the air.
Respiration Carbohydrates made by plants contain stored energy. Respiration=the process by which organisms use oxygen to break down the carbohydrates and release stored energy. Formula for Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Cell Energy Note: Breathing is required for most organisms to get the energy from food!
Combustion Carbon is also released into the atmosphere in the process of combustion. Combustion is the burning of a substance. All living things are made of carbon and when burned, they release carbon dioxide.
Burning of Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of dead plants and animals. When they are burned, CO2 is released into the atmosphere. Humans burn fossil fuels to generate electricity and to power vehicles. Examples: coal and oil
Death and Decomposition When organisms die, the carbon in their bodies is recycled by decomposers. Examples of decomposers are bacteria and fungi. Without these organisms, there would be no new life and we would be buried in dead things! Decomposition=process of breaking down organic materials and returning nutrients to the environment
Carbon Cycle and increased CO2 Carbon Cycle and increased CO2 Video
Carbon Dioxide and Corals Question: Will increased levels of carbon dioxide make the ocean more acidic, more basic, or have no effect? What will the change in pH do to coral reefs and other organisms? Is this a biotic factor or abiotic factor? Research/Previous Knowledge: Carbon dioxide: green house gas, colorless, produced naturally via decay and combustion Acid: substance that increases the H+ (hydrogen ion) concentration in a solution Base: substance that increases the OH- (hydroxide ion) concentration in a solution Coral: Corals are tiny organisms that make their own skeletons. Over time these become coral reefs which offer habitat for fish and other sea creatures Coral
Hypothesis: What will happen to the bromethyl blue (pH of 7; pH indicator) when we put carbon dioxide into the solution? (Write your hypothesis under decomposition) Will it turn pink or blue? I need 7 volunteers, please! Procedure: Pour bromethyl blue into beakers. 7 volunteers grab their own straw Alternating students, use straw to blow carbon dioxide into the pH indicator Collect observations based on the color the pH indicator after a few minutes.
Red Cabbage – Acidic vs. Basic https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=ni3XRxwTv WQ
Results: What happened to the solution in the control Jar? What happened to the solution in the experimental jar? Has the pH changed in the experimental jar? Conclusion? What will the change in the pH of the ocean due to corals? Is it only the corals that are effected? Why is it important to protect corals? Effects on Coral reefs
Nitrogen Cycle All organisms require Nitrogen. Nitrogen must be cycled through an ecosystem so it becomes available for organisms to make proteins and DNA. The atmosphere is about 78% Nitrogen, but most organisms cannot use it in that form!
Nitrogen Fixation A few bacteria have the ability to break down atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and turn it into ammonia (NH3). This process is called nitrogen fixation. These bacteria mostly live in the roots of certain plants called legumes, although some live in the soil. Plants that can fix nitrogen gas include legumes such as beans and alfalfa.
Assimilation Assimilation= the process in which plants absorb nitrogen. Plants build their proteins & DNA with this nitrogen. When animals eat plants, they obtain the nitrogen to build their own bodies with.
Ammonification Ammonification= nitrogen from animal waste or decaying bodies is returned to the soil. This is accomplished by decomposing bacteria.
Nitrification/Denitrification Nitrification= ammonia in the soil is converted by bacteria to nitrite and then is converted from nitrite to nitrate. Denitrification=nitrate is converted to N2— atmospheric nitrogen. This is also done by bacteria! Bacteria, Bacteria, Bacteria— what would we do without them?