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French Revolution & Napoleon Ch. 11. The Three Estates First Estate The Church Second Estate Rich Nobles Third Estate- everyone else Bourgeoisie- merchants,

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Presentation on theme: "French Revolution & Napoleon Ch. 11. The Three Estates First Estate The Church Second Estate Rich Nobles Third Estate- everyone else Bourgeoisie- merchants,"— Presentation transcript:

1 French Revolution & Napoleon Ch. 11

2 The Three Estates First Estate The Church Second Estate Rich Nobles Third Estate- everyone else Bourgeoisie- merchants, well-educated, paid high taxes Cooks, Servants- were paid low wages, frequently out of work Peasants- half of income went to nobles, tithes, & taxes

3 The Rulers Louis XVI Liked to spend time hunting instead of governing Marie Antoinette From Austria (Frances enemy) Madame Deficit- spent a lot of money on gowns, jewels, gifts, and loved gambling

4 The Revolution is coming! People began to use the words like equality, liberty, democracy The success of the American Revolution inspired them Causes: heavy burden of taxes High cost of living Bad weather caused crop failures Price of bread doubles

5 The Estates-General Louis XVI tried to tax the Second Estate called a meeting of the representatives of the three estates

6 The Estates-General continued.. Under medieval law- each estate would meet in a separate room & vote 3 rd. Estate always outvoted They establish the National Assembly Proclaimed the end of absolute monarchy & the beginning of a representative govt.

7 Tennis Court Oath National Assembly was locked out of their meeting room one day Broke onto a tennis court (hand-ball court) Pledged to stay until a constitution was written

8 Storming of the Bastille Louis XVI stationed an army in Paris Rumors flew that the troops were going to massacre the citizens July 14- a mob tried to get weapons/gunpowder from the Bastille (a Paris prison) Freed a few prisoners, killed the guards Symbolic act of revolution! July 14- French equivalent to our July 4

9 The Revolution Brings Reform & Terror The National Assembly reforms France Aug the peasants took away all the power of the 1 st & 2 nd. Estates (& took over church lands) A sans-culotte

10 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by the National Assembly Men are born & remain free & equal Preservation of the natural rights of men- life, property, security, & resistance to oppression Liberté, égalité, fraternité- became the slogan of the Revolution (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity)

11 The Great Fear Rebellion spread Mobs broke into nobles houses; burned their service papers & the houses

12 March on Versailles Oct Parisian women rioted over the high cost of bread Approx. 6,000 women (and some men joined) Took approx. 6 hours to walk from Paris to Versailles Marched on Versailles & forced Louis XVI and his family to go to Paris During their stay in Paris, the King and his family tried to escape (disguised as peasants), but they were caught & brought back to Paris

13 Legislative Assembly Created a limited constitutional monarchy- stripped the king of his authority & L.A. had the power to create laws Despite this new govt., old problems still remained: 1. Food Shortages 2. Debt

14 Legislative Assembly Radicals (the left, The Mountain) Opposed the king & monarchy Moderates (the middle)- wanted some changes in govt, but not as much as the radicals Conservatives (the right, Girondins) Wanted a limited monarchy & few changes in govt. The Mountain & Girondins- Formed the Jacobin Club

15 The Death of the King National Convention met in Paris (Sept. 1792)- abolished the monarchy & declared France a republic (all males had the right to vote) Louis XVI put on trial for treason, found guilty, & beheaded by the guillotine (Jan. 21, 1793)

16 The Guillotine Execution device Used to execute EVERYONE in an equal manner (in a humane way) More people executed by the guillotine from the 3 rd estate than the others (the same people the Revolution was supposedly carried out for)

17 The Reign of Terror July 1793-July 1794 Committee of Public Safety decided who was an enemy of the republic Tried people in the morning & executed them in the afternoon Danton & Robespierre- leaders of the Committee

18 Reign of Terror continued… Most famous victim- Queen Marie Antoinette 3,000 were executed in Paris (40,000 overall) 85% were peasants/middle class *Members of the National Convention turned on Danton & later Robespierre (they were executed) -Robespierres execution officially ended the Reign of Terror

19 The Directory new plan of govt. created Upper-middle class with a two house legislature & an executive body of five men Napoleon Bonaparte part of that executive body


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