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Chapter 3.1 The Road to the Constitution. Constitution Nations most important document Nations most important document Written in 1787 Written in 1787.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3.1 The Road to the Constitution. Constitution Nations most important document Nations most important document Written in 1787 Written in 1787."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3.1 The Road to the Constitution

2 Constitution Nations most important document Nations most important document Written in 1787 Written in 1787

3 Road to the Constitution May 25, Constitutional Convention May 25, Constitutional Convention 55 men met in Philadelphia, PA 55 men met in Philadelphia, PA 2 became presidents 2 became presidents 7 Had been Governor of their states 7 Had been Governor of their states 8 signed The Declaration of Independence 8 signed The Declaration of Independence 19 became Senators 19 became Senators 13 became Representatives 13 became Representatives 4 became federal judges 4 became federal judges 4 became Supreme Court justices 4 became Supreme Court justices The oldest delegate was Benjamin Franklin of PA, he was 81 The oldest delegate was Benjamin Franklin of PA, he was 81

4 Road to the Constitution George Washington presided over the convention George Washington presided over the convention His first action was to appoint a committee to set rules for the convention His first action was to appoint a committee to set rules for the convention

5 Operating Procedures Meetings could not be held unless delegates from 7 states were present Meetings could not be held unless delegates from 7 states were present Decisions were to be made by majorities, with each state having only one vote Decisions were to be made by majorities, with each state having only one vote

6 Operating Procedures Meetings were kept private Meetings were kept private Delegates were to revise the Articles of Confederation Delegates were to revise the Articles of Confederation Delegates soon realized the Articles needed to be discarded Delegates soon realized the Articles needed to be discarded

7 Need for a New Constitution The delegates sought to create a new plan for government The delegates sought to create a new plan for government Thus, the meeting came to be known as the Constitutional Convention Thus, the meeting came to be known as the Constitutional Convention

8 Chapter 3.2 Creating and Ratifying the Constitution

9 Two Opposing Plans Virginia Plan- designed by James Madison and the Virginia delegates Virginia Plan- designed by James Madison and the Virginia delegates

10 Virginia Plan Called for 3 branches of government Called for 3 branches of government Legislative branch- lawmakers Legislative branch- lawmakers Divided into 2 houses Divided into 2 houses Representation based on population Representation based on population Executive branch- carried out laws Executive branch- carried out laws Judicial branch- system of courts to interpret laws Judicial branch- system of courts to interpret laws

11 Virginia Plan Appealed to larger states, but feared by smaller states Appealed to larger states, but feared by smaller states

12 New Jersey Plan Designed by William Paterson of NJ Designed by William Paterson of NJ

13 New Jersey Plan Called for 3 branches of government Called for 3 branches of government Legislative, executive, and judicial Legislative, executive, and judicial Legislature- made of only 1 house with each state getting 1 vote Legislature- made of only 1 house with each state getting 1 vote

14 New Jersey Plan Smaller states approved this plan, however, larger states did not. Smaller states approved this plan, however, larger states did not.

15 Compromises Roger Sherman led a committee that proposed the Great Compromise. Roger Sherman led a committee that proposed the Great Compromise. It proposed that Congress would be divided into 2 houses- a Senate and House of Representatives It proposed that Congress would be divided into 2 houses- a Senate and House of Representatives House representation would be based on population House representation would be based on population Each state would have equal representation in the Senate Each state would have equal representation in the Senate

16 Compromises At the time of the Constitutional Convention, more than 550,000 African American were enslaved. At the time of the Constitutional Convention, more than 550,000 African American were enslaved. South wanted to count slaves as part of the population, the north did not South wanted to count slaves as part of the population, the north did not

17 Compromises Three-Fifths Compromise- every 5 enslaved people would count as 3 free people Three-Fifths Compromise- every 5 enslaved people would count as 3 free people Used to figure representation in House and in figuring taxes Used to figure representation in House and in figuring taxes

18 Compromises Northern states- congress should be able to regulate foreign commerce and trade between the states Northern states- congress should be able to regulate foreign commerce and trade between the states

19 Compromises Southern states- feared Congress would use this power to tax exports Southern states- feared Congress would use this power to tax exports This would hurt the southern economy because it depended heavily on exports of tobacco and rice This would hurt the southern economy because it depended heavily on exports of tobacco and rice

20 Compromises As a result, southern states agreed that Congress could regulate trade between the states and other countries. As a result, southern states agreed that Congress could regulate trade between the states and other countries. Northern states agreed not to tax exports and not to interfere with slave trade before Northern states agreed not to tax exports and not to interfere with slave trade before 1808.

21 The President Some delegates thought Congress should choose the President, others believed all of the people should decide. Some delegates thought Congress should choose the President, others believed all of the people should decide. Electoral College- group of people named by each state to select the president Electoral College- group of people named by each state to select the president

22 The President All people from each state would vote. All people from each state would vote. Each state was given a certain number of Electoral votes based off of its population. Each state was given a certain number of Electoral votes based off of its population. Which ever candidate won the majority of votes from that state would receive all of that states Electoral votes! Which ever candidate won the majority of votes from that state would receive all of that states Electoral votes! This is referred to a Winner Take All System This is referred to a Winner Take All System

23 Electoral Votes by State

24 Approving the Constitution On September 17, 1787, delegates at the Constitutional Convention met for the last time. On September 17, 1787, delegates at the Constitutional Convention met for the last time. Delegates decided that when 9 of 13 states had ratified it, the Constitution would become supreme law of the land. Delegates decided that when 9 of 13 states had ratified it, the Constitution would become supreme law of the land.

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26 Divided Public Americans reacted to the Constitution in different ways Americans reacted to the Constitution in different ways One group called themselves the Federalists One group called themselves the Federalists

27 Federalists They chose this name to emphasize that the Constitution would create a system of federalism They chose this name to emphasize that the Constitution would create a system of federalism Federalism- form of government in which power is divided between national and state governments Federalism- form of government in which power is divided between national and state governments

28 Anti-federalists Anti-federalists opposed the Constitution Anti-federalists opposed the Constitution They felt it gave too much power to the national government and took too much away from the states They felt it gave too much power to the national government and took too much away from the states

29 Reaching Agreement June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the 9 th state to ratify the Constitution June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the 9 th state to ratify the Constitution Rhode Island was the last to do so in 1790 Rhode Island was the last to do so in 1790

30 United States The 13 independent states were now one nation, the United States of America. The 13 independent states were now one nation, the United States of America.

31 Chapter 3.3 The Structure of the Constitution

32 Constitution Highest authority in the nation Highest authority in the nation Basic law of the U.S. Basic law of the U.S. Gives all branches of government their powers Gives all branches of government their powers

33 Constitution 3 main parts 3 main parts Preamble- introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government Preamble- introduction that states the goals and purposes of the government 7 articles- describe the structure of the government 7 articles- describe the structure of the government 27 amendments- additions or changes to the Constitution 27 amendments- additions or changes to the Constitution

34 Preamble 6 purposes of the government (p.61) 6 purposes of the government (p.61)

35 Preamble 1-form a more perfect Union 1-form a more perfect Union Unite the states so they can operate as a single nation. Unite the states so they can operate as a single nation.

36 Preamble 2- establish justice 2- establish justice Create fair laws for equal treatment of citizens Create fair laws for equal treatment of citizens

37 Preamble 3- insure domestic tranquility 3- insure domestic tranquility Maintain peace and order Maintain peace and order

38 Preamble 4- provide for the common defense 4- provide for the common defense Ready militarily to protect the country Ready militarily to protect the country

39 Preamble 5- promote the general welfare 5- promote the general welfare Help people live happy, healthy lives Help people live happy, healthy lives

40 Preamble 6- secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity 6- secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity Freedom and basic rights to all Americans, including future generations Freedom and basic rights to all Americans, including future generations

41 The Articles The 7 articles that follow the Preamble explain how the government is to work. The 7 articles that follow the Preamble explain how the government is to work.

42 Article I The Legislative Branch The Legislative Branch Congress is made of two houses Congress is made of two houses Senate Senate House of Representatives House of Representatives

43 Article II Executive Branch Executive Branch Law enforcing branch of government headed by the president and vice-president Law enforcing branch of government headed by the president and vice-president

44 Article III Judicial Branch Judicial Branch Interprets laws and sees that they are fairly applied Interprets laws and sees that they are fairly applied

45 Article IV IV-States IV-States All states must respect each others laws All states must respect each others laws Explains the process for creating new states Explains the process for creating new states

46 Article V-VI V- specified how amendments are to be made V- specified how amendments are to be made VI- declares that the Constitution is the Supreme law of the land. VI- declares that the Constitution is the Supreme law of the land. Federal law is more powerful than state law Federal law is more powerful than state law

47 Article VII The Constitution would take effect when 9 states ratified it The Constitution would take effect when 9 states ratified it

48 Amending the Constitution Since 1787, it has been amended 27 times Since 1787, it has been amended 27 times The first 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were added in The first 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were added in 1791.

49 Amendment Process The framers purposefully made the Constitution difficult to amend The framers purposefully made the Constitution difficult to amend Article V outlines the 2 steps for amending Article V outlines the 2 steps for amending

50 Amendment Process 2 steps 2 steps 1- proposal 1- proposal 2- ratification 2- ratification

51 Amendment Process Proposal- 2 methods Proposal- 2 methods 1- 2/3 vote by both houses of Congress 1- 2/3 vote by both houses of Congress 2- national convention requested by 2/3 of the state legislatures 2- national convention requested by 2/3 of the state legislatures

52 Amendment Process Ratification Ratification Once an amendment has been proposed, ¾ of the states must ratify it Once an amendment has been proposed, ¾ of the states must ratify it

53 Interpreting the Constitution Article I- The Necessary and Proper Clause Article I- The Necessary and Proper Clause allows Congress to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper allows Congress to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper Implied powers Implied powers

54 Interpreting the Constitution Supreme Court has the final authority on interpreting the Constitution Supreme Court has the final authority on interpreting the Constitution Presidential interpretation Presidential interpretation Foreign policy & requesting congressional legislation Foreign policy & requesting congressional legislation

55 Chapter 3.4 Principles Underlying the Constitution

56 5 fundamental principles 5 fundamental principles Popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty Rule of law Rule of law Separation of powers Separation of powers Checks and balances Checks and balances Federalism Federalism

57 Popular Sovereignty Popular sovereignty- power that lies with the people Popular sovereignty- power that lies with the people The Constitution echoes this idea The Constitution echoes this idea We the people We the people

58 Rule of Law Rule of law Rule of law Law applies to everyone, even those who govern Law applies to everyone, even those who govern

59 Separation of Powers Separation of powers Separation of powers Split of authority among the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government Split of authority among the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government

60 Checks and Balances Each branch is able to check, or restrain, the power of others Each branch is able to check, or restrain, the power of others

61 Federalism Power is shared by national and state governments Power is shared by national and state governments Expressed powers- granted to the national government Expressed powers- granted to the national government Reserved powers- powers that the Constitution does not give the national government, which are kept by the states Reserved powers- powers that the Constitution does not give the national government, which are kept by the states Concurrent powers- powers both levels of government can exercise Concurrent powers- powers both levels of government can exercise


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