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1 What is Ecology?. 2 The study of organisms and their environment.

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Presentation on theme: "1 What is Ecology?. 2 The study of organisms and their environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 What is Ecology?

2 2 The study of organisms and their environment

3 3 See if you know the difference between the two!

4 4 Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic

5 5 Abiotic

6 6 Abiotic

7 7 Biotic

8 8 Biotic Factors Review

9 Biotic Factors Are the living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism In its environment. Some biotic factors include: –Parasitism –disease –predation Are the living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism In its environment. Some biotic factors include: –Parasitism –disease –predation 9

10 10 Biotic Factors Producers Organisms that make their own food. Ex- Plants & some bacteria Producers Organisms that make their own food. Ex- Plants & some bacteria Consumers: Organisms that eat (consume) other organisms for energy (animals) Consumers: Organisms that eat (consume) other organisms for energy (animals)

11 11 Biotic Factors Decomposers: Consumers that eat waste products for energy. Waste products are feces, urine, fallen leaves, dead animals. (Fungi, some bacteria)

12 Scavengers Organism that eats other dead organisms 12

13 Abiotic Factors Are those non-living physical and chemical factors which affect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce Includes things such as: –sunlight –temperature –type of soil or rock –water availability Are those non-living physical and chemical factors which affect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce Includes things such as: –sunlight –temperature –type of soil or rock –water availability 13

14 14 Feeding Relationships Autotrophs: Organisms that make their own food (plants and some bacteria) Heterotrophs: Organisms that eat other organisms (they cannot make their own food)

15 15 Feeding Relationships Herbivores: eat plants (cows) Carnivores: eat meat (wolves) Omnivores: eat plants and meat (humans)

16 16 Levels of Organization

17 17 Review: What are the Simplest Levels? Atom Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ System Atom Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ System

18 18 Which Level of Ecological Organization? Take this quiz to see if you can tell the difference between the two!

19 19 Which Level? Organism – An Individual with all characteristics of life

20 20 Which Level of Organization? Population – groups of organisms of the same speciesPopulation – groups of organisms of the same species

21 21 Which Level of Organization? Biological Community – group of populations living togetherBiological Community – group of populations living together

22 22 Which Level of Organization? Ecosystem: the living and nonliving parts that are interacting together

23 23 Which Level of Organization? Biosphere: The earth that supports life.Biosphere: The earth that supports life.

24 24 What level of organization? Organism

25 25 What level of Organization? Community

26 26 What level of Organization? Population

27 27 Habitat & Niche Habitat is where something livesHabitat is where something lives Niche is an organisms total way of life (how it eats, competes with others)Niche is an organisms total way of life (how it eats, competes with others) Habitat is where something livesHabitat is where something lives Niche is an organisms total way of life (how it eats, competes with others)Niche is an organisms total way of life (how it eats, competes with others)

28 28 FYI- Niche Includes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment Each type of organism occupies its own niche to avoid competition with other types of organisms Two species can share the same habitat but not the same niche Includes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment Each type of organism occupies its own niche to avoid competition with other types of organisms Two species can share the same habitat but not the same niche Example: Ants and bacteria both live in the dirt (habitat) but have different niches. Ants eat dead insects and bacteria eat dead leaves, dead logs, and animal waste. So ants and bacteria dont compete for resources.

29 29 Survival Relationships Predator-prey: predators are consumers that hunt and eat other organisms called prey.

30 30 Survival Relationships Symbiosis: relationship in which one species lives on, in, or near another species and affects its survival. 3 Types: –Mutualism –Commensalisms –Parasitism Symbiosis: relationship in which one species lives on, in, or near another species and affects its survival. 3 Types: –Mutualism –Commensalisms –Parasitism

31 31 Mutualism type of symbiosis in which both species benefit. –Ex. Clownfish living in the sea anemones. It provides protection for the fish, and attracts potential food for the anemones. type of symbiosis in which both species benefit. –Ex. Clownfish living in the sea anemones. It provides protection for the fish, and attracts potential food for the anemones.

32 32

33 33 Commensalism type of symbiosis in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited –Example: Spanish moss grows on the branches of trees. The moss gets a habitat and the tree gets nothing. type of symbiosis in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited –Example: Spanish moss grows on the branches of trees. The moss gets a habitat and the tree gets nothing.

34 34 Parasitism one species benefits and the other species is harmed. –Parasite: organism that harms but does not usually kill another organism –Host: organism that is harmed by a parasite Ex. Ticks feed on dogs, people, etc. The ticks get food (blood) and the hosts lose blood and can be infected with disease. one species benefits and the other species is harmed. –Parasite: organism that harms but does not usually kill another organism –Host: organism that is harmed by a parasite Ex. Ticks feed on dogs, people, etc. The ticks get food (blood) and the hosts lose blood and can be infected with disease.

35 35 Abiotic Factors- Non-living parts of the environment. Biotic Factors- All the living parts of the environment Ecology- Study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Producer- Uses the sun to make food autotroph Consumer- organisms eat others for energy heterotrophs Decomposer- break down dead organisms and cause decay 5. Biosphere- part of the earth that supports life 4. Ecosystem- living & nonliving parts interact together. 3. Community- group of populations living together. 2. Populations- groups of organisms of the same species. 1. Organism- individual with all characteristics of life. Scavenger-eats dead organisms The 5 Levels of Ecological Organization

36 End of Day One Notes 36

37 37 Trophic levels and food chains Trophic level: A feeding level in an ecosystem.

38 38 Eaten by 1 st trophic level: producers (make their own food) 2 nd trophic level: primary consumer (eats plants) 3 rd trophic level: secondary consumer (small carnivore) 4 th trophic level: tertiary consumer (large carnivore) Eaten by Eaten by Last trophic level: decomposer (eats dead animals) Bacteria Eaten by

39 39

40 40 Energy Pyramid Every time an organism eats, it obtains energy from its food. So energy is transferred from the 1st trophic level to the 2nd trophic level to the 3rd trophic level and so on. Some of this energy is lost along the way during an organisms metabolism and as heat. This energy can be measured in kilocalories (kcal). Every time an organism eats, it obtains energy from its food. So energy is transferred from the 1st trophic level to the 2nd trophic level to the 3rd trophic level and so on. Some of this energy is lost along the way during an organisms metabolism and as heat. This energy can be measured in kilocalories (kcal).

41 41 Energy Pyramid Picture that shows how much energy is transferred among the different trophic levels in a food chain; energy is lost as you move up the pyramid. Food chain: lineup of organisms that shows who eats who. –Shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem. Picture that shows how much energy is transferred among the different trophic levels in a food chain; energy is lost as you move up the pyramid. Food chain: lineup of organisms that shows who eats who. –Shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.

42 42 Food Webs A food web is a network of connected food chains. More realistic than a food chain because most organisms feed on more than one species for food.

43 43 Trophic LevelEnergy Available 1 st Producers 10,000 kcal/m 2 /year 2 nd Primary consumers 1000 kcal/m 2 /year 4 th Tertiary consumers 10 kcal/m 2 /year 3 rd Secondary consumers 100 kcal/m 2 /year

44 44

45 45

46 46 Some energy is lost as heat and the rest is consumed or excreted as waste.

47 47

48 48 Practice with Food Chains & Food Webs

49 49 Identify the food chains inside the food web.

50 End of Day 2 Notes 50

51 51 Cycles in Nature There is only a limited amount of resources (water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) on the earth. In order to keep these resources available to organisms, they must be recycled after they are used. Cycle: a process that recycles a resource so that you end up with what you started with. There is only a limited amount of resources (water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) on the earth. In order to keep these resources available to organisms, they must be recycled after they are used. Cycle: a process that recycles a resource so that you end up with what you started with.

52 52 Nitrogen Cycle 1. Nitrogen fixation: Bacteria in the ground change nitrogen from the atmosphere (N 2 ) to different nitrogen compounds 2. These bacteria live in plants and transfer the nitrogen compounds to the plants 3. Animals eat the plants and take in the nitrogen compounds 4. Bacteria eat the dead animals and animal waste and take in the nitrogen compounds 5. Denitrification: Bacteria change the nitrogen compounds back to N 2 and release it to the atmosphere

53 53 Nitrogen Cycle

54 54 Water Cycle 1. Precipitation: Rain and snow fall from the atmosphere to the earth 2. Seepage: Water seeps into the ground and plants use it 3. Transpiration: Plants give off water to the atmosphere 2. Runoff: Extra water runs off the land to lower-lying bodies of water 3. Evaporation of water from the bodies of water back into the atmosphere

55 55 Water Cycle

56 56 Carbon Cycle 1. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) are found in the atmosphere 2. Animals and plants use the O 2 to make energy (respiration) 2. Plants use CO 2 to make their own food (photosynthesis) 3. During respiration, animals and plants release CO 2 back into the atomosphere 3. During photosynthesis, plants release O 2 back into the atomosphere

57 57 Carbon Cycle

58 58 Population Size

59 59 Populations What is a population? What are some factors that can contribute to the size of a population? What is a population? What are some factors that can contribute to the size of a population?

60 60 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size Organisms depend on each other for: So what happens when these factors change? Organisms depend on each other for: So what happens when these factors change? Food Protection Reproduction Shelter

61 61 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 1.Predation: –What could happen if a predator is introduced to a population and there are no organisms to eat it? 1.Predation: –What could happen if a predator is introduced to a population and there are no organisms to eat it? Unchecked for many years, the snakes caused the extinction of nearly every native bird species on the Pacific island of Guam

62 62 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 2. Competition - What can happen if resources become limited? 2. Competition - What can happen if resources become limited?

63 63 Organism Interactions Limit Population Size 3. Crowding & Stress –As pop. Increase in size and start straining their resources, they may become stressed. What are some examples of stress symptoms? Aggression Decrease in parental care Decreased fertility Decreased resistance to disease 3. Crowding & Stress –As pop. Increase in size and start straining their resources, they may become stressed. What are some examples of stress symptoms? Aggression Decrease in parental care Decreased fertility Decreased resistance to disease

64 64 How do you determine population size? Growth rateamount that a populations size changes over time –Birth ratenumber of births occurring during a period of time (ADD) -- Death rate (or mortality rate) number of deaths in a period of time (SUBTRACTS) Growth rateamount that a populations size changes over time –Birth ratenumber of births occurring during a period of time (ADD) -- Death rate (or mortality rate) number of deaths in a period of time (SUBTRACTS)

65 65 How do you determine population size? Birth rate – death rate = growth rate - Positive number means the pop. is growing - Negative number means the pop. is shrinking Birth rate – death rate = growth rate - Positive number means the pop. is growing - Negative number means the pop. is shrinking

66 66 Human population size Other things that affect a populations numbers: Life expectancyhow long on average an individual is expected to live –US men: 72 yrs, US women: 79 yrs Immigrationindividuals moving into a population (ADDS) Emigrationindividuals moving out of a population (SUBTRACTS) Other things that affect a populations numbers: Life expectancyhow long on average an individual is expected to live –US men: 72 yrs, US women: 79 yrs Immigrationindividuals moving into a population (ADDS) Emigrationindividuals moving out of a population (SUBTRACTS)

67 67 What can affect population size? When you figure out the number of individuals living in a certain area, this is called the population density. There are two limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that can affect the pop. density Limiting factorany biotic or abiotic factor that restrains the growth of a population When you figure out the number of individuals living in a certain area, this is called the population density. There are two limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that can affect the pop. density Limiting factorany biotic or abiotic factor that restrains the growth of a population

68 68 What are limiting factors? Density-independent factorsfactors that affect the population regardless of the populations size –Ex: fires, climate Density-dependent factorsfactors whose effects on the population depend on the populations size –Ex. food shortages, disease Density-independent factorsfactors that affect the population regardless of the populations size –Ex: fires, climate Density-dependent factorsfactors whose effects on the population depend on the populations size –Ex. food shortages, disease

69 69 Density- dependent or Density- independent? Take the following quiz to find out!

70 70 Predation –Density-dependent Volcanic eruption –Density-independent Chemical pesticides –Density-independent Predation –Density-dependent Volcanic eruption –Density-independent Chemical pesticides –Density-independent Parasitism –Density-dependent Forest fire –Density-independent Migration –Density-dependent

71 71 Communities

72 72 FYI: How are communities formed? Communities are made of several populations living together Think back to population size. What are some limiting factors that can affect a community? Communities are made of several populations living together Think back to population size. What are some limiting factors that can affect a community?

73 73 FYI: Forming Communities What would happen if people stopped cutting the grass in their yards? 1. The grass would get taller & weeds would grow 2. Later, bushes would grow; trees would appear, and different animals would enter the area 3. After 30 years, it would eventually become a forest…BUT WHY? What would happen if people stopped cutting the grass in their yards? 1. The grass would get taller & weeds would grow 2. Later, bushes would grow; trees would appear, and different animals would enter the area 3. After 30 years, it would eventually become a forest…BUT WHY?

74 74 Forming Communities Successionorderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem Successionorderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem

75 75 Communitites Primary succession development of a community in an area that did not previously exist –Ex: new volcanic island, bare rock, sand dune –Happens slowly Primary succession development of a community in an area that did not previously exist –Ex: new volcanic island, bare rock, sand dune –Happens slowly

76 76

77 77 Communities Pioneer speciesusually small, fast growing, and fast reproducing organisms that are first to colonize land after a disturbance Example of primary succession: lichens Pioneer speciesusually small, fast growing, and fast reproducing organisms that are first to colonize land after a disturbance Example of primary succession: lichens

78 78 Communities Secondary succession sequential replacement of species that follows a disruption of an existing community Example of secondary succession: grasses, weeds Secondary succession sequential replacement of species that follows a disruption of an existing community Example of secondary succession: grasses, weeds

79 79

80 80 Communities Climax community stable end point of a community after succession takes place Climax community stable end point of a community after succession takes place

81 End of Day 3 Notes 81


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