2What are we studying exactly? American Government versus Political ScienceWilson and DiIulio take a a political science approachWhat difference does this make?Crash course in modern political theory
3Why Do We Have Government? How did it develop? Because “men aren’t angels”—MadisonA Historical answer and a theoretical answer
4How Have Governments Evolved Over the Centuries? A. First CivilizationsNeolithic RevolutionStable food supply led to population growth and to the development of civilizations1.advanced cities2. Specialized workers3. Complex institutions(religion and government)4. Record keepingAdvanced technology(wheel, plow, sail, bronze weapons)The City-StateDeveloped as a basic unit of gov’t basedHad social classesnobilitypriestsmiddle class/merchantsFarmersPeasantsSlavesEarly example: Egypt
5Early Empires Greek and Roman Contributions: Government Art Science Some city-states were stronger than others.1700 B.C. King Hammurabi’s Code establishes “an eye for an eye”In the Middle East:BabyloniansAssyriansPersiansShang & Zhou in ChinaGreek and Roman Contributions:GovernmentArtSciencePhilosophy
6Greece’s Contributions 4th & 5th Century B.C.Golden Age of Greece under PericlesThe Greek Empire was hugeCity-states such as Athens and SpartaAthenian democracy included the Assembly which passed laws and held public debates.Council of 500 (tried Socrates)Key ideas include direct democracy(demos kratos) meaning “power from the people”Who counted as a citizen in ancient Athens?25% of population was a citizen. Women and slaves were not citizens, only males born to Greek mothers who met property qualifications
7Key Roman Contributions Codified LawsPoor people demanded a written lawLaws of the 12 TablesLegal test was “what a person of common sense and good faith would know to be right”CitizenshipHighly valued in the ancient worldNon-Romans willingly gave up freedom to gain the benefits of Roman citizenship because it gave them the same rights/privileges as those who lived in Rome
8Growth of Feudalism Dark Ages Decline of civilization after the collapse of the Roman Empire in Europe.Catholic Church filled the power voidFeudalism slowly began to developWas both an economic and political systemBased on land (fiefs) given in exchange for loyalty to a lord1200s-1300s A.D. feudalism was gradually replaced by the
9Rise of the Nation-State Monarchy was still the form of political power.Rise of the middle class led to the collapse of feudalism. Why?They wanted their rights recognized and protected(more about this to come)Nation and State are sometimes used interchangeably.State versus statekey difference is sovereignty (more about this to come)
10Now for the Theoretical Answers. . . Do you remember what the question was?Where did Government come from?So far we’ve looked for our answer in history (government approach)Now for the political science approach beginning with ancient political theory
11Social Contract Theory Developed in the context of the English Civil WarThree key figures:Sir Robert Filmer ( ) &Thomas Hobbes ( )John Locke ( )
12Sir Robert FilmerMost famous work is Patriarcha or The Nature of KingsWritten in defense of the English monarchy. Since the king can be traced back to the line of David, he has divine authority to rule.
13Thomas HobbesDisagreed with Filmer and began looking for a new explanation for where government came from.Looked into the mythical “time before government” which he called the state of nature.This state assumes scarcity of resources and takes a negative view of human nature
14Hobbes’ State of Nature Wrote about how he thought government came about in his work Leviathan.“war of all against all” because we are all perfectly freeLife in the state of nature is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”, hence we need governmentGovt’s main responsibility is to protect our right to life.
15Hobbes’ LeviathanHobbes concludes that we voluntarily give up our perfect freedom in the state of nature to gain the protection of government.So the sovereign rules because his/her power comes from the people.The people and the sovereign have formed a social contract.
16John LockeHis most famous work of political philosophy is The Second Treatise of GovernmentAgrees with Hobbes that government is based on the social contractDisagrees that this means that monarchy is the best form of government.Develops the idea of natural rights: life, liberty and property
17Locke’s political philosophy Also returns to the “state of nature”Focuses on conflict over limited resources as source of strifeWe need government to resolve disputes by being a known judgeDevelops the “labor theory of value”The state acts as “night watchman”We give up our absolute freedom in exchange for protection of our rights, so we enter into the social contract with government.
18BUT. . .Since the government is created by the people, they also have the right to dissolve it.If government is NOT protecting the people’s rights, the people have the right to break the contract and form a new one.This is what the Declaration of Independence is all about.
19I. What is Political Power? Two great questions about politics1. Who governs: the people who govern affect usTo which ends: in which ways government affects our livesAnd then how the government makes decisions on a variety of issues
20Power“the ability of one person to cause another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions”As it relates to political power:who will have political power?how will government behave?
21How much power should a sovereign have? Magna Carta (1215) first attempt to limit the power of the kingThe Petition of Right (1628)The English Bill of Rights (1689)As revolutionary as the Founding Fathers were, many of their ideas were not new.
22Two Kinds of Political Power Authority: the right to use powerLegitimacy: where does the right to have power come from?How do we determine authority and legitimacy in America?
23II. What is Democracy? Greek roots; Aristotle’s “demos kratos” Example of ancient AthensNew England tradition “town hall meetings”Is America really a democracy? Why or why not?
24America is a Republic “res publica” direct democracy versus representative democracyAncient Rome as an exampleRoman citizens had rights protected by the governmentHow many times is the word democracy in the Constitution?
25Representative Democracy Is competitiveWho should be able to represent the people?What does it mean that representative democracy requires competition if the system is to work?Are elected officials today really accountable to the people whose interests they are supposed to represent? How can you tell?
26What Did the Framers Mean? Do we think of our elected officials today in the same way the Framers (Founding Fathers/authors of Constitution) would have?Consider The Federalist’s warning against factions.Now consider that the main source of campaign funds is special interest groups.
27Were the Framers Elitist? What is “elitism?”Is it necessarily a bad thing?There are pros and consCan every issue be settled via majoritarian decision-making?What about the fear of the “tyranny of the majority”?Is the “will of the people” the same thing as “the common interest” or the “public good”?
28Theories of Elite Influence 1. Those with economic power have the political power (Marxism)2. the “power elite” is made up of business leaders, military leaders and politicians (Mills)3. The elite are the bureaucrats who have specialized skills and knowledge (Weber)4. no one group has ultimate control, so there must be bargaining and compromise (pluralism)
29What about self-interest? Who do politicians really represent?Is it a bad thing if they’re self-interested?We’ll revisit this question when we look at the models of congressional representation (trustee vs. delegate)