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Chapter 11 DNA, RNA and Proteins Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 Deoxyribonucleic Acid- type of nucleic acid DNA is the code for manufacturing.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 DNA, RNA and Proteins Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281 - 287 Deoxyribonucleic Acid- type of nucleic acid DNA is the code for manufacturing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 11 DNA, RNA and Proteins

3 Section 11.1 Summary – pages Deoxyribonucleic Acid- type of nucleic acid DNA is the code for manufacturing all the proteins for an organism. DNA is made of nucleotides What is DNA?

4 Nucleotides have three parts: a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Phosphate group Sugar (deoxyribose) Nitrogenous base The structure of nucleotides

5 Nitrogen Bases Nitrogen Bases : adenine (A), guanine (G) cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine (A)Guanine (G) Thymine (T)Cytosine (C) PyrimidinesPurines Sugar Sugar - deoxyribose. Nucleotide Structure

6 Base Pairing Adenine – Thymine Cytosine - Guanine A - T C-G A-T C-G A - T C-G A - T C-G

7 In DNA, the amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is always equal to the amount of cytosine. The structure of nucleotides

8 Nucleotides join together to form long chains Phosphate groups and deoxyribose molecules- form the backbone of the chain The structure of DNA It is a double helix and is twisted

9 Section 11.1 Summary – pages Chromosome The sequence of nucleotides forms the unique genetic information of an organism.

10 REPLICATION

11 Section 11.1 Summary – pages Replication Before mitosis or meiosis, the chromosomes are copied – this is called DNA replication. Happens during Interphase The new DNA is identical to original DNA

12 Section 11.1 Summary – pages Replication of DNA DNA Replication

13 Copying DNA Original DNA Original DNA Strand Free Nucleotides New DNA molecule New DNA Strand New DNA molecule

14 Section 11.1 Summary – pages Replication of DNA Click this image to view movie

15 type of nucleic acid single stranded RNA Ribonucleic acid RNA Ribonucleic acid

16 Section 11.2 Summary – pages sugar is ribose Ribose RNA

17 Nitrogen bases: adenine – uracil cytosine - guanine Uracil Hydrogen bonds Adenine RNA NO thymine

18 Comparing DNA and RNA DNA 1. double stranded 2. sugar – deoxyribose 3. nitrogen bases - adenine-thymine - cytosine-guanine RNA 1.Single stranded 2.Sugar – ribose 3.Nitrogen bases: - adenine- uracil - cytosine- guanine

19 Proteins are made of amino acids. The sequence of nucleotides in each gene contains the code for making the string of amino acids that make up a protein. Genes and Proteins

20 Section 11.2 Summary – pages Transcription 1. DNA - instructions for making proteins (proteins are made of amino acids) 2.RNA transcribes the instructions from the DNA- mRNA

21 Messenger RNA (mRNA), brings instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes. (in the cytoplasm) mRNA

22 Difference in Replication and Transcription Replication – forms a double stranded DNA molecule from the DNA in the nucleus and it is identical to the original DNA Transcription – forms a single stranded RNA molecule called mRNA from the DNA that is in the nucleus

23 DNA separates – mRNA is assembled A AT C CG G GC C CG T UA C CG DNA

24 Section 11.2 Summary – pages Transcription

25 Section 11.2 Summary – pages Translation: From mRNA to Protein 1.mRNA is made in the nucleus and travels to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. - ribosomes are made of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) 2.ribosome attaches to the mRNA tRNA –( transfer RNA) – brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome to make the protein

26 Section 11.2 Summary – pages Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the supplier. Transfer RNA delivers amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a protein. RNA Click image to view movie

27 Section 11.2 Summary – pages Translation

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29 Strand of mRNA AUG UAA CGA CGA GAU GUG UGA Codon – set of three nitrogenous bases that represent an amino acid (the order of the nitrogen bases is the recipe for the protein)

30 AUG UAC CGA CGA GAU GUG UGA Methionine, Tyrosine, Arginine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Valine, Stop Each codon represents an amino acid mRNA strand

31 Try one!!!! Write the amino acids that correspond to the codon!!!! AUG UUU ACA AAA GGG GAG GUC UAA methionene, phenylalanine, threonine, lysine, glycine, glutamic acid,valine,stop

32 Now try something different- here is the mRNA – write what the DNA code was for this mRNA. AUG UUU ACA AAA GGG GAG GUC UAA TAC AAA TGT TTT CCC CTC CAG ATT

33 Review of Translation 1.mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome 2.mRNA has the code for making the protein 3.tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome to make the protein

34 Mutation Any change in the DNA sequence

35 Mutations Body cell – damage to a gene may impair the function of the cell - ex: cancer Reproductive Cell – mutation could become a part of the genetic makeup of the offspring -ex:genetic disorder, death

36 Types of mutations Point mutation – a change in a single base pair in DNA – wrong amino acid - ex: CCC – codon for proline CGC(mutation) – codon for arginine Insertion – an extra base pair inserted – changes the codon Deletion – a base pair is missing – again changes the codon

37 Results in a frameshift mutation- it shifts the reading of codons so has the wrong amino acids for the protein

38 Practice DNA strand: TAC AAA TGT TTT CCC CTC CAG ATT RNA strand: AUG UUU ACA AAA GGG GAG GUC UAA Amino Acids making up the protein: methionene, phenylalanine, threonine, lysine, glycine, glutamate,valine,stop

39 Point mutation DNA strand: TAC AAA TGT TAT CCC CTC CAG ATT RNA strand: AUG UUU ACA AUA GGG GAG GUC UAA Amino Acids making up the protein: methionene, phenylalanine, threonine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamate,valine,stop

40 Frameshift Mutation DNA strand: (deletion) TAC AAA TGT TT CCC CTC CAG ATT RNA strand: AUG UUU ACA AA GGG GAG GUC UAA AUG UUU ACA AAG GGG AGG UCU AAG Amino Acids making up the protein: methionene, phenylalanine, threonine, lysine,glycine,arginine, serine, lysine

41 Chromosomal mutations Deletion-part of the chromosome is left out Insertion- part of chromatid breaks off and attaches to its sister chromatid (duplication of genes on one chromosome) Inversion – when a chromsome breaks off and reattaches backwards Translocation- part of one chromosome breaks off and is added to a different chromosome

42 Causes of mutations Mutagen- any thing that causes a change in the DNA - radiation, chemical, UV light, nuclear radiation, asbestos,


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