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Bellringer Who wrote The Communist Manifesto? Who wrote The Communist Manifesto? Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the proletariat?

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Presentation on theme: "Bellringer Who wrote The Communist Manifesto? Who wrote The Communist Manifesto? Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the proletariat?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Bellringer Who wrote The Communist Manifesto? Who wrote The Communist Manifesto? Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the proletariat? Who were the proletariat?

3 Chapter 13 Mass Society and Democracy Section 2 The Emergence of Mass Society

4 The New Urban Environment By the end of the 19 th century, mass society had emerged, and the concerns of the majority – working class – were important. By the end of the 19 th century, mass society had emerged, and the concerns of the majority – working class – were important. This change coincided with the growth of cities. This change coincided with the growth of cities.

5 The New Urban Environment B/w 1800 & 1900 the population of London grew from 960,000 to 6,500,000. Urban residents grew from 40% to 80% of the population London

6 The New Urban Environment Cities grew because of rural migration to urban centers. Cities grew because of rural migration to urban centers. Lack of jobs in the country and the improvement of living conditions in cities led to this rural migration. Lack of jobs in the country and the improvement of living conditions in cities led to this rural migration. Its all about the Its all about the

7 The New Urban Environment Following the advice of urban social reformers, city govt created boards of health to improve the quality of housing. Following the advice of urban social reformers, city govt created boards of health to improve the quality of housing. Medical officers and other officials inspected the buildings for public health hazards. Medical officers and other officials inspected the buildings for public health hazards.

8 The New Urban Environment Essential to public health of the modern European city were clean water and proper sewage systems. A system of dams, reservoirs, aqueducts, and tunnels provided the water.

9 Social Structure of Mass Society Even through the rising standard of living after 1870, great poverty remained. Even through the rising standard of living after 1870, great poverty remained. Also, several middle-class groups existed b/w the few rich and many poor. Also, several middle-class groups existed b/w the few rich and many poor.

10 The New Elite A wealthy elite made up 5% of European society A wealthy elite made up 5% of European society Controlled up to 40% of the wealth Controlled up to 40% of the wealth The aristocratic and upper middle class members of the elite were govt and military leaders. The aristocratic and upper middle class members of the elite were govt and military leaders. Marriage sometimes served to unite these 2 groups. Marriage sometimes served to unite these 2 groups.

11 The Middle Classes The middle class included: The middle class included: Lawyers Lawyers Doctors Doctors Members of civil service Members of civil service Engineers Engineers Scientist Scientist

12 The Middle Classes Beneath the solid middle class was a lower middle class: Beneath the solid middle class was a lower middle class: Shopkeepers Shopkeepers Secretaries Secretaries Clerk Clerk

13 The Middle Classes The The European middle class was identified with certain values, which it preached to others: Hard Hard work – paid off with enough labor Churchgoers Churchgoers – moral way of doing things This This gave way to etiquette books such as The Habits of Good Society.

14 The Working Class Made up 80% of European population. Made up 80% of European population. Included Included Skilled artisans Skilled artisans Semi-skilled laborers Semi-skilled laborers Unskilled laborers – day laborers & domestic servants Unskilled laborers – day laborers & domestic servants

15 Urban Worker Life improved after 1870 due to: Life improved after 1870 due to: Reforms Reforms Rising wages Rising wages Lower prices Lower prices Could even afford some leisure activities, and strikes were leading to 10 hour workdays and Saturday afternoons off. Could even afford some leisure activities, and strikes were leading to 10 hour workdays and Saturday afternoons off.

16 The Experiences of Women In 1800 family roles defined women. In 1800 family roles defined women. Women were legally inferior to and economically dependent on men. Women were legally inferior to and economically dependent on men. The good ole days!

17 New Job Opportunities The Second Industrial Revolution opened the door to new jobs for women. The Second Industrial Revolution opened the door to new jobs for women. Many worked as low-paid, white collar workers. Many worked as low-paid, white collar workers. Secretaries Secretaries Secretaries Clerks Clerks Clerks Typists Typists Typists

18 Marriage and Family Throughout the 1800s marriage was the only honorable and available career for most women. Throughout the 1800s marriage was the only honorable and available career for most women. However, the birthrate did drop due to better economic conditions and birth control. However, the birthrate did drop due to better economic conditions and birth control. First birth control clinic opened in Amsterdam in First birth control clinic opened in Amsterdam in 1882.

19 Marriage and Family Middle-class family fostered the idea of family togetherness. Victorians created the family Christmas. By the 1850s, Fourth of July celebrations in the U.S. had changed from wild celebrations to family picnics.

20 The Movement for Womens Rights Modern feminism, the movement for womens rights, began during the Enlightenment. Modern feminism, the movement for womens rights, began during the Enlightenment. The movement in the 1800s began with a fight for the right of women to own property. The movement in the 1800s began with a fight for the right of women to own property.

21 The Movement for Womens Rights Women sought access to universities and traditionally male fields of employment. Women sought access to universities and traditionally male fields of employment. ****Dont Write**** ****Dont Write**** This was shown by the women leaders in various fields as you will see on the next few slides: Hold your breath because here they are! This was shown by the women leaders in various fields as you will see on the next few slides: Hold your breath because here they are!

22 Amalie Sieveking Entered the medical field by becoming a nurse. Founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick

23 Florence Nightingale & Clara Barton During the U.S. Civil War they transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle class women in white During the U.S. Civil War they transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle class women in white

24 Emmeline Pankhurst She and her daughters founded the Womens Social and Political Union. She and her daughters founded the Womens Social and Political Union. Its members chained themselves to lampposts, pelted politicians with eggs, and smashed windows. Its members chained themselves to lampposts, pelted politicians with eggs, and smashed windows.

25 Pankhurst and Suffrage Suffragists – people who wanted the vote extended to all adults – believed in the right of women to full citizenship in the nation-state. Suffragists – people who wanted the vote extended to all adults – believed in the right of women to full citizenship in the nation-state.

26 Universal Education U.E. was a product of mass society of the late 19 th century and early 20 th centuries. U.E. was a product of mass society of the late 19 th century and early 20 th centuries. B/w 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to set up state-sponsored primary schools. B/w 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to set up state-sponsored primary schools. Children 6-12 were required to attend. Children 6-12 were required to attend. States trained teachers States trained teachers 1 st female colleges were teacher-training institutes. 1 st female colleges were teacher-training institutes.

27 Universal Education The reason for a commitment to public education was????? The reason for a commitment to public education was?????INDUSTRIALIZATION The chief motive for education????? The chief motive for education?????POLITICAL

28 Universal Education Extending the right to vote called for a better- educated public. Extending the right to vote called for a better- educated public. Primary schools instilled patriotism. Primary schools instilled patriotism.

29 Universal Education Increased education increased literacy, or the ability to read. (Which is why you can read this!) Increased education increased literacy, or the ability to read. (Which is why you can read this!) In countries where there was no universal education (Russia, Serbia for example) 80% could not read. In countries where there was no universal education (Russia, Serbia for example) 80% could not read. Increased literacy helped spread newspapers. Increased literacy helped spread newspapers.

30 New Forms of Leisure The leisure allowed by the Second Ind. Rev. entertained people and distracted them from the realities of their work lives. The leisure allowed by the Second Ind. Rev. entertained people and distracted them from the realities of their work lives.

31 New Forms of Leisure Amusement Parks gave people new experiences and showed them new technology. Amusement Parks gave people new experiences and showed them new technology. Team sports developed. Team sports developed. Public transportation allowed the working class to attend games and other leisure venues. Public transportation allowed the working class to attend games and other leisure venues.games

32 Review 1. Cities grew because of rural migration to ___. 1. Cities grew because of rural migration to ___. 2. Who made up 5% of European cities? 2. Who made up 5% of European cities? 3. What were the job opportunities for women in the Second Industrial Revolution? 3. What were the job opportunities for women in the Second Industrial Revolution? 4. What was the movement for womens rights? 4. What was the movement for womens rights?

33 End of Section 2 Next: Section 3 The National State And Democracy


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